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PSYC 4750 Midterm: PSYC 4570 Midterm 2 Exam Notes

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University of Guelph
PSYC 4750
Mark Fenske

BOREDOM Link Between Boredom & Attention Brain as a Battleground • Brain is limited in the capacity to fully process info • Constant competition to determine what actions & thoughts we focus on • Cognitive Control: we can bas the competition to meet our goals/objectives Attention & Self-Control • The face of our thoughts & actions are influenced by competing signals. (1) Emotional Impulses = immediate rewards (2) Long-Term Goals = what is socially appropriate • Old View= lack of control is a moral failure • New View= understanding how the brain exerts self-control can help us to make it better Factors that Determine the Focus if Our Thoughts & Actions 1) Cortical Development • Occurs from age 5 - 20 • dlPFC us last frontal love region to fully mature ➞ early - mid 20s • Limbic / Reward System: Well develop -allows strong emotional & reward seeking impulses - easy to focus on something that is highly rewarding or highly distressing • Cognitive Control Systems: Under Developed - weak regulation of emotions & reward impulses - hard to focus on something that is highly rewarding or distressing 2) Attention & Emotion/Motivation • Emotional & motivational signals can sternly influence our attention • Processes of attention can have affective consequences for; (1) specific objects/events (2) general mood / affective well-being 3) Attention & Reward • Reward - related signals can strongly influence cognitive engagement • Education materials / activities vary in (1) inherent reward & (2) ability to compete w/ other thoughts, object or actions 1 Boredom Boredom & Learning • In classroom teachers try to; (1) reduce distractions (2) ensure struct attention to course material & activities What We Know 1) What Boredom Feels Like: - time slows down - lack of interest / general malaise - desperation to find stimulation - antsy/agitated OR lethargic/apathetic - feeling stuck/not in control ➞ disinhibited - can’t make decisions 2) Some ppl are more prone to experience boredom than others 3) Not Trivial: - associated w/ 1 attention & impulse control disorders ➞ ADHD, - overeating/binge eating, drug/alcohol abuse, gambling - 2 depression & anxiety - 3 mortality What is Boredom • Psychodynamic: - dynamics of conscious / unconscious motivation - longing for activity but don't know what they want - look to world to solve the impasse • Existential: - how individuals five meaning to life - a sense of emptiness, meaninglessness & a paralysis of agency - experience of inaction, emptiness & paralysis of will is NOT realized • Arousal Theories: - aversive state from the inability to derive an optimal level of arousal from the environment - too much OR too little stimulation • Cognitive Theories: - perception of one’s environment is lacking opportunities for satisfying activity ➞ uninteresting - results in an inability to concentrate or a need for effort Attention & Boredom Damrad - Fry & Laird Study • Task: listen to a fairly interesting article and remember to content • Boredom was evaluated in presence of subtle distractions Distraction from a rewarding task impairs engagement causing boredom • 2 Boredom as a Cognitive - Behavioural Alarm • Limited time / resources means we need to be busy / productive • Ppl dislike idling ∴ ppl who are busy are happier than ppl who idle even if they are forces to be busy • Greater awareness of how unrewarding/effortful something is the more boredom acts to alter what we are doing • If you are trying to do something but are not being effective; (1) try another approach (2) do something different Distraction & Boredom Fisher Study • Task: repetitive assembly task requiring little attention OR uninteresting proof reading task • ↓ boredom in presence of distraction • A distraction from an unrewarding task can ↓ boredom Good Distractions • Fidgeting: (1) Index of Inattention: - failure to control mind & body - predicted by inattentiveness & spontaneous mind wandering - ↑ mind wandering = ↑ fidgeting - mind wandering is associated w/ costs to 1 primary-task performance - 2 secondary-task goals (i.e. controlling extraneous movements)’ - ADHD (2) Emotional Regulation: - distraction from boredom-related stress - motor-induced analgesia - avoiding distress of the difficulty maintaining attentional engagement (3) Boost attention: - motor-induced ↑ physiological arousal - ex: treadmills and fidgeting toys in classroom to try to enhance thinking and learning (4) When Bored: - distraction from monotony and distress of boredom - trying to ↑ attentiveness through motor-induced ↑ in arousal (↑engagement = ↓ boredom • Doodling: can ↑ recall memory when given a surprise memory test Deep Daydreaming & Spontaneous Movement • Stereotypic Movement Disorder (SMD): - motor disorder - repetitive non-functional motor behaviour & maladaptive daydreaming - onset occurs in childhood 3 Default Network • Freely Associative Thought: - areas more active at rest than during highly focused cognitive tasks. - precuneus, RSC/PCC, PHC/MTL, mPFC • Network of brain regions that are consistently active during object recognition and memory recall • Brain associations are the basis if our thoughts and the need for our anecdotal memory recall Our brain is never turned off therefore we are constantly thinking about things and wandering • from one topic to the next. - explains why you get ideas when you are doing a novel activity like showering or falling asleep • Default networks are turned off during a focused task b/c we need the resources to complete the task (1) Lack if a cognitively-demanding task: - loosens the reins of cognitive control - allows thought processes and neural activity not strictly related to the primary task (2) Increased contribution from highly-associative processes: - making connections - creative insight • Focusing too narrowly can suppress neural activity needed to solve a problem • A slight distraction can often actually help, even for attention demanding tasks Self-Control • Practicing self-regulation enhances future self-regulation • ex: practicing using non-dominant hand, posture, exercise, study program Fenske Study: induced boredom and measured fidgeting PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Need Definition • Any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth and well-being • When need are nurtured and satisfied, well-being is maintained and enhanced • If needs are neglected, the need thwarting will cause damage that disrupts biological or psychological well being and health. • Thwarting puts the body in defence mode in the form of motivation and emotional takes that provide will to act before damage occurs. • Biological condition within the organism that integrates brain structure. hormones and major organs to regulate bodily well-being and life • Often is derived from a state of deprivation. 4 Deprivation-based needs are generated from negative/tension emotions (fear, anxiety) to be able • to grab out attention and perform the correct action to avoid damage • Growth needs are generated from positive emotions (interest, hope, enjoyment) to encourage us to engage in activity to promote well-being Fundamentals of Regulation Drive Theory • Physiological deprivation creates biological need. • If need is not satisfied the biological deprivation • increases to occupy all our attention and will generate • a psychological drive. • Drive=psychological discomfort created by a • biological deficit that energizes action to satisfy • biological needs. Physiological Need • Deficient biological condition in tissue and bloodstream • ex: water loss, nutrient deprivation, injury • If untreated they will cause bodily harm Psychological Drive Conscious manifestation of unconscious biological need that has motivational properties to drive • action Trim Size: 7.5in x 9.25in Reevc04.V2 - 09/2:23 P.M. • ex: appetite(psych drive) energizes eating not low blood sugar (bio need) • Homeostasis: maintaining a steady state of internal equilibrium (basal state) with an changing 88 Chapter Physiological Needs external environment (1) Satiated state • Ppl have motivation/drive to maintain steady state (7) Drive is reduced (2)develops graduallyrivation Negative Feedback (6) Consummatory behavior • Homeostasis physiological stop system that stops drive- occurs (3) Prolonged physiological deprivation produces activated behaviours to prevent bodily damage bodily need (5) Goal-directed motivated behavior • ex: drinking water, once thirst is satisfied the body shuts off occurs as attempt to gratify drive the signals that motivate you to drink (4) Need intensifies; gives rise to psychological drive Figure 4.3 Model of Need-Drive-Behavior Sequence Multiple Inputs/Outputs for water or calories (3). In time, the physiological need intensifies enough to produce felt tension and restlessness, which is the psychological drive (4). Once motivated by drive, • Different sources can result in the same drive the person begins to think about and to actually engage in goal-directed action (5). When the thirsty person finds and drinks water, or when the hungry person locates and consumes leading to specific behaviour food, consummatory behavior occurs (6). The water or food intake satisfies and removes the 5 reduction (7). Following drive reduction, the individual returns to a satiated (i.e., unmoti- vated) state (1), and the whole cyclical process begins to play itself out again. The cyclical pattern depicting the rise and fall of a psychological drive (Figure 4.3) involves seven core regulatory processes: need, drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, mechanisms.puts/multiple outputs, intraorganismic mechanisms, and extraorganismic • Drive is the unobservable motivational concept that mediates the state of deprivation (antecedent conditions/inputs) and the goal directed actions (behaviour/output) • Level of motivation/drive predicts what happens more than environmental conditions Trim Size: 7.5in x 9.25in Reevc04.V2 - 09/2:23 P.M. Intraorganismic Mechanisms • Biological regulatory system within the pension that activate, maintain and stop th92biChapterPhysiological Needs needs the energize drive. Current Internal State • Brain structures, endocrine system and bodily organs are the 3 main intraorganismic mechanisms Neural, Hormonal, and PhMechanisms Monitor andismic • Brain Structures: Thalamus - relay b/w sensory organs and Regulate Homeostatic Status of cortex Constantly Changing Internal State Behaviors taken to Behaviors taken to Hypothalamus: - regulates bodily functions/needs raise internal state lower internal state • up to homeostasis back to homeostasis - temp, eating/drinking, sex, endocrine function If internal conditions If internal conditions • ex: Hunger, hypothalamus(brain structure), glucose and are too low are too high insulin hormones (endocrine system) and stomach, liver (bodily organs) Physiological Need CoSocial, and Culturalal, Activates Drive Extraorganismic MechanSignals Satietyk IncreaseDecrease drive Extraorganismic Mechanisms Figure 4The Homeostatic Mechanism • All environmental influences that play a part in activating, THIRST maintaining and stoping psychological drive. Our bodies are about two-thirds water. When our water volume falls by about 2 percent, we feelthirsty.Dehydrationoccurswitha3percentlossofwatervolume(Weinberg&Minaker, • Principal categories of influences: (1) cognitive need that is psychological thirst. We lose water constantly through perspiration, urination,l breathing, and even through bleeding, vomiting, and sneezing (i.e., multiple inputs). With- (2) environmental (3) social (4) cultural outwaterreplenishment,eachofuswoulddieinabouttwodays.Ifyouhaveevergonemore than 24 hours without any water, then you know that the body has reliable and effective • ex: Hunger, goal for loosing weight (cog), smell of food (enviro), peer pressure to eat or not goal-directed behaviors to find and consume some water.full attention—and motivate (social), cultural ideals of body shape (cultural) Physiological Regulation intracellular fluid consists of all the water inside the cells (approximately 40 percent of Homeostatic Mechanism • Integration of biological need, psychological drive, neg feedback, inputs/outputs, and intra- and extra- organismic mechanism to maintain steady internal environment Thirst Physiological Regulation • Intracellular fluids: all water inside cells • Extracellular fluids: all water outside cells • Double-Depletion Model of Thirst: thirst arises from both intra- and extra- cellular deficits • Insular cortex and ACC detect conflict and are part of the subject experience of thirst 6 • ACC function = representation requirements which proactively organize processing in other brain regions to efficiently achieve consumption • Hypothalamus regulates release of ADH by the pituitary to activate and deactivate thirst • Osmotic Thirst: - primary cause of thirst activation - depletion in intracellular fluids/ cellular dehydration - bodily fluids are too salty and water is drawn out of cells - hypothalamus lamina terminalis: salinity detector signals need for water and triggers thirst - salt-free water will satisfy this thirst (gatorade would add to problem b/c it contains electrolytes - alcohol interferes w. antidiuretic effect of vasopressin therefore it will not satisfy thirst - Vasopressin=hormone secreted to restore balance - Anterior lobe of the pituitary releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH) to induce thirst • Volemic Thirst: - depletion of extracellular fluids due to bleeding, sweating - loss of both water and salts - Hypovolemia=reduction of plasma volume induces volumetric thirst - Hypervolemia stops volumetric thirst - baroreceptors detect drop in BP (strongly linked to circulatory system) - signal the brain to activate thirst - baroreceptors blood osmolality decrease and thirst is deactivated - isotonic saline best satisfies volumetric thirst - ex: Gatorade replenishes water and electrolytes Thirst Satiety • Osmorecepts in the mouth, stomach, and cells allow for negative feedback of thirst activation to avoid overconsumption once the water has been absorbed • Hypothalamus: monitors intracellular shrinkage and releases hormones into blood plasma that sends a signal to the kidney to conserve water • Also contains salt-concentration-sensitive cells that detect changes in salt contrition from normal levels • Low blood volume and high [salt] (aka love water) it stimulates pituitary release of ADH which signals the kidney to conserve water. • Creates the conscious psychological state of thirst that directs action and behaviour twd drinking water 7 Environmental Influences • Taste is most important influence of thirst • 3 Reasons for Drinking: (1) thirst-related water replenishment, which satisfies biological need; (2) non-thirst-related sweet taste, which is a response to the attractive incentive value of avored water; (3) a non-thirst-related attraction to, or even addiction to, a substance in the water (and not the water itself). • Social and cultural influences surround alcohol and caffeine consumption • ex: binge drinking on collage campus Hunger Short-Term Appetite • Glucostatic Hypothesis: - homeostatic based model of short-term appetite - accounts for onset and termination of hunger and eating - states that blood sugar levels are critical to hunger ie when blood sugar drops, ppl feel hungry - deficit of glucose in cell needed for energy to perform function • Lateral Hypothalamus: - responsible for generating the psychological experience of hunger - stimulation will cause overeating and continued stimulation will cause obesity - liver monitors blood glucose and sends excitatory signals to the LH if levels fall below normal - contains specialized neurons that respond to the rewarding properties of food and are only activated when hungry • Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH): - the satiety centre - short-term appetite neg feedback system, therefore if not functioning it will result in overeating and obesity - liver detect high glucose levels, stomach filling and will send signals to the VMH to release cholecystokinin (CCK) • Non-Brain Based Regulators of Hunger: (1)Stomach distension: - empties faster after low-calorie meal - stomach distension is more effective than any diet (2)Body temp: - can increase and decrease short-term appetite - eat more in winter to increase body temp, may eat even if we are not hungry - eat less in the summer to decrease the increase in body temp due to food metabolism (3) Type of food: - high protein and fibre foods increase feeling of satiety for a longer period of time - carbs are metabolized faster therefore we get hungry after a short time 8 Long-Term Energy Balance • Lipostatic Hypothesis: - when fat stores drop below homeostatic balance, adipose tissues secrete ghrelin into bloodstream to promote hunger - if fat stores increase above normal, adipose theses secretes leptin into circulation to reduce food intake Ghrelin: - synthesized in stomach and circulated in blood • - monitored by the LH which received signals from the stomach and intestines via ghrelin - when a physiological signal becomes conscious awareness produces the feeling of hunger • Leptin: - synthesized by fat cells and circulates in blood - monitored by the VMH which receives signals from fat cells that there is enough nutrients and we can stop eating. - when this physiological message becomes conscious it is the feeling of satiety. • Diets: - diet-induced food deprivation leads the body to generating higher levels go ghrelin after the diet is stoped to compensate - leptin administration does not decrease hunger or reverse obesity because of leptin resistance - some food companies seek to postpone the release of insulin by offering low glycemic index foods to keep blood sugar levels constant to suppress onset of hunger Set-Point Theory • Variation of lipostatic hypothesis • Each individual has a biological determined body weight (fat thermostat) that is set by genetics at birth • Creates an individual difference in the number of fat cells • Hunger and satiety depend on # of fat cells a person has, which can vary overtime • When fat cell size is reduced through dieting, hunger arises and persists until feeding behaviour bring fat cells to their natural set-point. • People also inherit a number of fat cells and a homeostatic set point for how full fat cells should be • Set point increases w/ age • Chronic excess of food intake can cause increase in fat cell # and size Environmental Influences • Time of day, stress, sight, smell, appearance and taste of food • Food availability and variety encourages eating • New food can bring in new taste that can initiate eating and a way that is independent from hunger Social aspect: ppl eat less when they are alone than when they are with friends • 9 • Peer pressure to eat or diet • Eating behaviour increases significantly when an individual is presented a variety of foods Self-Regulatory Influences (1)Cognitively Regulated Eating Style: - ppl believe that their physiological regulation of body weight is not enough to meet their personal expectations - dieting requires a person to ignore internal cues telling them to eat and instead regulated eating using cognitive control - problem is that cognitive control does not have negative feedback therefore they are more susceptible to bingeing - ppl become unaware of how strong out biological needs are - environmental events and our feelings distract us from cognitive control (2) Restraint-Release Situations:- stress, alcohol, depression or high calorie food, dieter are susceptible to disinhibition aka restraint release of their cognitive control (bingeing) - fasting is ineffective b/c of the major reduction in energy expended, decrease metabolism, and fragile cognitive control making them vulnerable to restraint-release • High Calorie Food: preloading can cause major binge eating in dieters • Depression: ppl w/ depression and diet often gain weight due to dieter’s restraint release while non-dieting depressed ppl loose weight • Anxiety: anxious dieters often eat more than non-dieting anxious ppl • Stress: failing at a task can induce binge eating • Alcohol: same restraint release effect • Social Pressure and facilitation and restraint release moves away from physiological regulation and twd social, cognitive and emotional regulation of eating. Weight Gain and Obesity • Obesity: state of increased body weight that produces adverse health consequences like increase CVD, diabetes, resp. problems, cancer, premature death • Obesity prevention includes a healthy lifestyle with exercise and healthy eating • Self regulatory strategies can be used to reverse weight gain and obesity by monitoring the environmental influences that affect eating, increase exercise • Physiological regulatory processes are difficult to control Comprehensive Model of Hunger • Combines short-term and long-term physiological influences with environmental and psychological self regulate influences. Hunger and eating are linked via the glucostatic hypothesis: + line = hunger motivates eating • 10 Trim Size: 7.5in x 9.25in Reevc04.V2 - 09/24/2014 Sex Environmental Influences ·Food variety, appeSelf-Regulation Motivation • line = eating satisfies hunger ·Situational pressures + – • Lipostatic hypothesis links appetite and fat + Hunger Glucostatic Hypothesisting stores to stimulate satiety (Appetite) (Energy Intake) • Physical activity decreases fat stores, – environmental influences stimulate eating, and – + + self-regulatory motivation regulated eating. When too high When too low Fat Stores Lipostatic HypothesisBody Weight) Why Do We Eat? • Biological Perspective: source of energy – • rebuild cells, make hormones and chemicals Physical Activity enzymes from food (Energy Expenditure) • remove toxins ex: antibiotics + Exercise Motivation • Emotional Perspective: food has a hedonic Figure 4Comprehensive Model of Hunger Regulation value that makes us feel good glucostatic hypothesis of short-term appetite in which hunger motivates eating (denoted • Social and Psychological Perspective: to socialize or celebrate. ex: getting togby the + sign) while eating satiates hunger (denoted by the −sign). The dashed lines in the center of the figure represent the lipostatic hypothesis of long-term appetite in which eating events increases fat stores while fat stores (when too low) stimulate hunger and fat stores (when too high) stimulate satiety. In addition, physical activity decreases fat stores, environmen- • form friendships, reaffirm relationships and commitments one’s weight) regulated eating (rather than hunger per se). Overall, the figure identifies the core processes underlying hunger and eating from what can otherwise be a very complex set of relationships. Avoiding Toxins SEX • Biological Component: - First line of defence:Smell and taste In lower animals, sexual motivation and behavior occur only during the female’s ovula- - we are programmed to avoid foods that smell bad or that taste bitter tion period (Parkes & Bruce, 1961). During ovulation, the female secretes a pheromone, and its scent stimulates sexual advances from the male. For the male, injections of testos- • Second Line: - gagging, spitting vomiting response terone (a hormone) can further increase his sexual behavior. Hence, in the lower animals, - pregnant women are more sensitive to adverse flavours and smells • Learned Component: - natural tendency to avoid new foods - new foods sampled in small amounts - food preferences are largely learned i.e. taste governs preferences - learning to like foods we don’t like the first time we try them • Cognitive Component: - warnings draw attention to danger of certain chemicals - more toxins getting into the food chain that need to be monitored Food Selection • Biological Component: - taste plates a key role in what to eat or avoid - unlearned last preferences to sweet and fatty foods - sweet foods are less toxic and good caloric source - fats contain essential ingredients and are highest calorie source • Learned Component: - different eating preferences of different ethnic groups - humans learn to eat foods that are available 11 - lean to avoid foods that product sickness • Cognitive Component: - increasing need to reason about what to eat depending on results of scientific research Face Muscles Levator muscle: activated when looking at palatable food • • Hungry ppl show weaker activity when looking at unpalatable food • Zygomaticus muscles: activated when looking at palatable food Food Reward • Forebrain is the hedonic hot spot for food creating experience of reward associated with food • Nucleus accumbent and ventral pallidum are also responsible for pleasure of food • Liking and wanting of food often go together but environmental conditions can sometimes separate them • ex: after eating a big meal you don't want your favourite food but you still like it Mindless Eating • Ppl keep eating in the bottomless soup bowl study because they did not have the visual cues of the cowl being empty Three Motivations to Reverse Weight Gain/Obesity (1) Self-Regulation of Food Intake: - decrease eating though self regulatory strategies (ex: goals) (2) Exercise Motivation: - increasing physical activity to burn calories and fat stores - reduces appeal of hedonic food - ppl may not want to exercise b/c our brains has evolved to not waste energy on mindless activity - basal ganglia: critical for making a choice away from actions that need more effort - activity of nucleus accumbent decreases high mental effort needed - dorsal anterior cingulate cortex precedes NA in order to process info and mediate subjective experience of effort (3) Mindfulness Over One’s Environmental Influences:- becoming aware of environmental influences that effect eating 12 Sex Physiological Regulation • Hormones: - androgens, estrogens, progesterone and oxytocin influence sexual behaviour - increase and decrease throughout life - androgens contribute mainly to sexual motivation in males and estrogens in females - Arousal: men’s sexual desire can be predicted and explained by sexual arousal. - men show a triphasic sexual response cycle: desire, arousal, orgasm - in women the correlation between physiological arousal and psychological desire is low. - women’s sexual desire is responsive to relationship factors, such as emotional intimacy not physiological need • Desire: - sexual desire is associated with subcortical brain activations in the ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, hypothalamus, and amygdala - associated with posterior insula activations - love is more associated with anterior insula activations • Behaviour: - hand holding, touching, hugging, kissing, cuddling, and the stimulation of reproductive organs, - these behaviours stimulate the hypothalamic release of oxytocin into the bloodstream - promote social relatedness and bonding Sexual Attraction • Choosing and keeping a partner • Obtaining and maintain resources to children • What we find attractive is not a matter of subjective preference • We respond to cues about genetic makeup, current health status, long-term investment potential • Sexual Response Cues: visual(face), auditory(voice), tactile(kissing), olfactory (pheromones) Facial Metrics • Study of people’s judgments of the attractiveness of facial characteristics • Physical characteristics are viewed as universally attractive, including health youthfulness, and reproductive capacity. • Facial attraction is largely independent of gender, culture, ethnic group, sexual orientation and age • There are certain type of faces that the majority of ppl like • Both men and women rate slim females as attractive. • Main predictor of women’s rating of men’s bodies is waist-to-hip ratio (slimmer=more attractive) • Categories of Attractive Features: (1)Neonatal features: associated with the newborn infant, large eyes and a small nose, 13 - associated with attractive nonverbal messages of youth and agreeableness (2) Sexual maturity features: - associated with post-pubescent status, - prominent cheekbones, for males thick facial and eyebrow hair - associated with attractive nonverbal messages of strength, status, and competency (3)Expressive features: - a wide smile/mouth and higher-set eyebrows are means to express positive emotions such as happiness and openness • Women Facial Metrics: - most associated with neonatal features - large eyes, a small nose, and small chin are seen as youthful and agreeable - sexual maturity features like cheekbone prominence and expressive characteristics add attractiveness • Men Facial Metrics: - most associated with sexual maturity features - prominent chin length and thick eyebrows are seen as strong and competent - expressive features (smile height and width) add to attractiveness ratings of men’s faces. Faces as a Health Indicator • Faces start to change at puberty and are indicator of health and fertility • Femininity of a women's face suggests higher estrogen and healthy reproductive system • ex: smaller jaw, higher thinner brows • Women with attractive faces have more accented hour glass figures • Women’s faces are rated more attractive the ovulating (follicular) than off cycle (luteal) • Men’s faces are rated more attractive if they are more fertile • Men’s face with long square jaw, thick brows suggests he is more masculine and higher in testosterone • Lack of symmetry is seen as less attractive due to its association with birth problems Bodies • Humans use waist as an indicator of a person's gender • Attractive Men: straight torso with a masculine shoulder swagger • Attractive Women: hourglass shah w/ lots of hip swag • Less to do with health and fertility and more to do with combination of cues • The way ppl walk makes it easier to process gender making you more attractive • Men focus on breast as a single that the women is past puberty and can reproduce Voice • Men: - prefer higher ouches voices - indicated femininity, health, and youth - younger women have higher pitch voices as do women w/ a higher estrogen level 14 - women voice becomes more appealing/higher during ovulation • Women: prefer deeper, masculine voices - pitch of man's voice is related to amount of testosterone they had at puberty - women pick up these cues at a subconscious level Scent • Brain processing of door elicits emotional responses • Androsterone: - secretion that influences sexual behaviour - men produce this in their apocrine gland which cluster wherever there is body hair - females generally hate this smell except during ovulation - for men it is an efficient mating radar that repels women unless they're fertile - salty water from a man’s sweat glands blend w/ androsterone to future the bacteria on the skin which give ever man a unique smell that women are attuned to - ex: treadmill experiment, women avoid smells of their relatives and only liked the smell of men’s sweat if they were ovulating • MHC: - a section of our DNA that determine the diseases our immune system is equipped to fight - our immune system determine which bacteria can live on our skin and what makes our sweat smell - no 2 ppl have the same MHC combination - immunological benefit when different MHC profiles are combined in offspring • Ppl prefer body scents different from their own • Closely related ppl have similar immune system and body odours and are aversive to each other scent to avoid incest • Scent steer women away from genetically unsuitable partners • When men are exposed to vaginal secretion they will lose the ability to distinguish b/w attractive and less attractive women Sexual Scripts • Definition: the individual’s storyline of what a typical sexual encounter involves • Men: learn to coordinate sexual script to coincide with the 3 stages in the sex response cycle of desire, arousal, and orgasm • Women: more likely to include events such as falling in love rather than participating in sex • Dating: - male and female sexual scripts must transition from independent to a team script - if transition fails their encounters will be stressful, awkward sexual performance - when coordinated and conventionalized it is focused as much on the other as on oneself - couple’s sexual scripts begin to have an adaptive, additive that brings sexual and relational satisfaction 15 • Sexual schemas: - beliefs about the sexual self that are derived from past experiences - both positive approach-oriented thoughts/behaviours (sexual desire and sexual participation) and negative avoidance-oriented thoughts /behaviours (sexual anxiety, fear, conservatism, and sexual inhibition) Sexual Orientation • A key component of post-pubescent sexual scripts • Sexual orientation continuum includes heterosexual, bisexual and homosexual. • The prenatal hormonal environment predicts adolescent sexual orientation • ie: concentrations of androgens, estrogens Evolutionary Basis of Sexual Motivation • Men and women have evolved distinct psychological mechanisms that underlie their sexual motivations and mating strategies • Men: - short-term sexual motivations, - less stringent standards, - value sexual accessibility cues such as youth, - value chastity in mates • Women: value signs of a man’s resource, - social status and ambition, - promising career potential • Evolutionary: - sexual behaviour is strongly constrained by genes - gene programme that men want young, attractive mates; women want powerful, high-status mates • Higher the man’s social status, the more he expects in terms of a woman’s looks • Speed-dating: - men highly prefer physically attractive women - women prefer men with strong earning prospects - Tend to prefer mates with family commitment, sexual fidelity as much as mates with high status or attractiveness. - Both sexes also rate intelligence and kindness as necessities 16 Efficacy and outcome expectations are separate, causal determinants to the initiation and regulation of behavior (Bandura, 1991). Consider the different expectancies that might run through a surgeon’s mind in preparing for an operation. The extent to which the sur- geon does or does not engage in that operation depends on (1) his efficacy expectation that he can skillfully perform the surgery and (2) his outcome expectation that the surgery, once enacted, will produce certain physical, psychological, emotional,financial, and social benefits for himself and for his patient. PERSONAL CONTROL BELIEFS Both efficacy and outcome expectations must be reasonably high before behavior Motivation to Exercise Personal Control becomes energetic, goal directed, and sustained over time. Thus, an analysis of efficacy and Two Kinds of Expectancy outcome expectancies allows us to understand people’s reluctance to engage in activities such as public speaking, dating, athletics, and job interviews. To speak publically, date, (1) Efficacy Expectation: - a judgment of one’s capacity to execompete, or interview, the person must not only be confident in his efficacy to execute these behaviors, he must also be reasonably assured that an effective performance will pay action. off (i.e., will lead to desired outcomes). Take away either of these positive forecasts and - estimates the likelihood that an individual can behave inreluctance and avoidance become rather logical ways of acting. - expectation of being able to do the behaviours one needs in order to cope with the situation - pertain to confidence in being able to do a behaviour Perceived Control: Self, Action, and Control (2) Outcome Expectation: - a judgment that a given action, onceFigure 10.1 puts the interrelationships between Person, Behavior, and Outcome at the cen- outcome ter of expectancy motivation. Some researchers prefer using the alternative terminology of - estimate how likely it is that certain consequences will follow once that behaviour is donecate this same idea (Skinner, 1996), so Figure 10.2 - expectation that one's behaviour will produce positive outcomes (or prevent negativebut interchangeable) terminology. As shown in the figure, the defining relation in the study of perceived control is that of Self (Agent) → Control (Ends). outcomes). People express this Self → Control relation in everyday questions such as, “Can I improve my health?”, “Can I improve my marriage?”, and “Can I earn a scholarship?” In other • Efficacy and outcome expectations are separate, causal deterwords, perceived control revolves around how the Self (Agent) can exert Control (Ends). regulation of behaviour Figure 10.2, like Figure 10.1, shows how perceived control can be broken down into • Efficacy and outcome expectations must be high before behaviour becomes energetic, goal “Can I cope effectively?” (Self → Action) and “Will my directed, and sustained over time coping improve my health, marriage, or scholarship prospects?” (Action → Control). • Analysis of efficacy and outcome expectancies allows us to understand reluctance to engage in activities Self Action Control (Agent) Efficacy (Means) Outcome (Ends) Expectations Expectations Perceived Control: Self, Action and Control • Perceived control revolves around how the Self (Agent) can exert Control (Ends) Perceived Control Self-Efficacy Figure 10.2Self → Action → Control Model of Perceived Control Definition • Motivational variable that determines the extent to which a performer copes well when skills are stressed. - Not the same as ability • Capacity in which the individual organizes and orchestrates skills to cope with the circumstances • Generative capacity to improvises to best translate personal abilities into effective performance • Predicts the motivational balance between wanting to try and anxiety, doubt, and behavioural avoidance • ex: test taking, athletic performance • Doubt: - opposite of self-efficacy - unsure of the capacity to perform in a scenario will result in anxiety and adverse physiological arousal - can interfere with effective thinking, planning and decision making 17 Sources of Self-Efficacy (1) Personal Behaviour History: - extent to which a person believes they can competently complete an action that stems from her personal history of trying to do that action in the past - memories of successful past attempts increase self efficacy, and past failed attempts decrease - ex: successfully or failing to riding a bike for the first time - ppl who lack experience will gain positive or negative self efficacy with each trial - most influential source of self-efficacy (2)Vicarious Experience: - observing a someone do same course of action as you are about to do - seeing someone else do an behaviour first increase your self efficacy b/c it initiates social comparison - if the person you are observing fails the task, it will decrease your self efficacy - Factors: 1 greater similarly b/w you and the model the greater the impact on your self-efficacy - 2 less experience of the observe r(novice), the greater the impact of the vicarious experience - second strongest source (3) Verbal Persuasion: - attempt to convince the lister that they are can successfully do the task - when effective it can persuade the performer to focus on their strength rather than personal weaknesses - shifts attention away from ineffective sources of self efficacy - limited by the mind of the performer, credibility and trustworthiness of the persuader - can also be performed individually to ones self - provides the performer with enough of a temporary and provisional efficacy boost to generate the motivation necessary for another try (4) Physiological State: - abnormal physiological state is a private, attention-getting, message that contributes to one’s inefficacy - absence of tension, anxiety or fear increase efficacy by providing bodily feedback to cope with action - link b/w efficacy and physiological activity is bidirectional - ex: Inefficacy heightens arousal and heightened arousal feeds back to fuel perceived inefficacy - decrease in efficacy with adverse physiological arousal if individual already has doubt - if efficacy is assured, ppl interpret physiological arousal as “getting pumped up” • Personal behaviour history and vicarious experience have therapeutic possibilities • Verbal persuasion and regulating physiological states have largely supplemental possibilities. • Stronger evidence that skill performance affects efficacy than efficacy effecting skill 18 Self-Efficacy Effects on Behaviour (1) Choice of Activities and Environment: - ppl will often choose to avoid tasks and environments as a self-protective act against being overwhelmed challenges. - doubt-plagued avoidance choices: arise from overwhelming, confusing decisions - can have a strong detrimental effect on long term development - ppl w/ weak self-efficacy encourage avoidance of certain activities and environments and enhances self-doubt (2) Effort and Persistence: -strong self-efficacy beliefs have persistent coping efforts to overcome setbacks - leads to a quick recovery of self-assurance following such setbacks - doubt has less coping effort when you encounter a difficulty and to settle with mediocre solution (3) Thinking and Decision Making: - strong self-efficacy allows for efficient and focused analytical thinking during stress - doubt in problem solving abilities causes erratic thinking - doubt deteriorates efficacy buffers, the quality of thinking and decision making during a performance (4) Emotionality: - strong self efficacy: visualize the scenario and feel a sense of interest and enthusiasm - keep anxiety controlled during performance - week self-efficacy: causes dwelling on personal deficits and feeling a sense of anxiety(etc) from visualization - strong reaction to a setback during performance - can be reversed with therapy to increase coping strategies (5) Learning, Coping, Performing and Achieving: - self-efficacy facilitates task involvement needed to increase learning, coping, performing and achieving via thinking clearly and experience constructive emotions (hope) Self-Efficacy or Physiological Need for Competence • Self-efficacy and perceived competence are similar, but are not interchangeable motivational constructs. Physiological need for competence is more of a development constant • • Self-efficacy beliefs are specific to particular tasks and situations • Coping behaviours are situation specific therefore so is the self-efficacy that predicts them Psychological need for competence is for more general experience • 19 Empowerment High self-efficacy beliefs can be acquired and changed via the 4 sources of self-efficacy • • Level of self-efficacy predicts “competent functioning” or “personal empowerment.” (aka coping) • Empowerment: - possessing knowledge, skills, and beliefs that allow people to exert control over their lives - make ppl feel less vulnerable • Self-Efficacy Beliefs: allow ppl to (1) translate their knowledge and skills into effective performance when threatened and (2) exert control over intrusive negative thoughts. Mastery Modeling Program • An expert works with a group of relative novices to show them how to cope with fearful situation. - ex: self defence instructor • Steps: (1)Expert identifies component skills involved in effective coping and measures novices’ efficacy expectation on each component skill 
 (2)Expert models each component skill, emphasizing the novices’ most worrisome skill areas. 
 (3) Novices emulate each modelled skill. Expert provides guidance and corrective feedback, as needed 
 (4)Novices integrate the individual skills into an overall simulated performance. - Expert introduces only mild obstacles and helps novices integrate the different skill components into a coherent overall performance. (5) Novices participate in cooperative learning groups. One person gives a simulated performance while peers watch and provide encouragement and tips. - Each person takes a turn until everyone has performed multiple times. (6) Novices perform individually in a realistic situation that features numerous difficulties, surprises, obstacles, and setbacks while the expert provides modeling and corrective feedback. (7)Expert models confident demeanour and arousal-regulating techniques. • Novice builds efficacy by watching the skill from both expert and peer and by receiving constructive feedback they acquire vicarious experience • By hearing encouraging peers, the novice acquires verbal persuasion • By imitating the expert they obtain physiological calmness Mastery Beliefs Definition Extent of perceived control one has over attaining desirable outcomes and preventing aversive • ones • When personal control beliefs are strong the individual perceives a strong link b/w actions and outcomes. 20 • When personal control beliefs are weak, the individual perceives that personal initiatives and actions produce little effect on what happens. • Competence: capable, well-qualifies • Self-Efficacy: ability to produce required effect • Empowerment: personal strength and confidence Ways of Coping • How much mastery over outcomes one has depends on how they cope with the situation • Ppl can cope by approaching or avoiding problems or by focusing on regulating their emotions Mastery vs Helplessness • Mastery Motivational Orientation: - resistant portrayal of self during failure - person remains on task and focused during setback - seize challenges and become energized by setbacks - increase their efforts and change their strategies - do not see failure as an reflection of the self. - accept this task-generated information, make the necessary adjustment to perform better - we are the primary source of you behaviours not external forces • Helpless Motivational Orientation: - fragile view of the self during failure - respond to failure by giving up and acting as if it was out of their control - fall apart when setback, and question and doubt their ability - decrease their efforts and begin to condemn their abilities and lose hope for any future successes - see failure as an reflection of the self - external forces are the primary source of behaviour not our actions - low self-efficacy and lack of empowerment • Failure Feedback: suggests that one needs more effort, better strategies, and more resources Learned Helplessness Definition • The psychological state that results when an individual expects that life’s outcomes are uncontrollable • Develops when people expect desired outcomes or undesired outcomes are independent of their behaviour over actually obtaining or preventing outcomes • Depends on the strength of the perceive relation b/w the person's behaviour and the outcome • Mastery Orientation has a strong relation b/w behaviour and outcome 21 • Learned helplessness, behaviour has no influence on outcome therefore outcome is influenced by outside factors Learning Helplessness • Dog Study: Phase 1 (1) inescapable shock: unable to avoid the shock, no coping mechanism (passive) (2) escapable shock: could stop the shock if they pressed a button, had coping mechanism (active) (3) no shock: placed in same conditions as group 1 and 2 but no shock given Phase 2: - all groups received same escapable shock condition - could avoid shock by jumping to the other side of the chamber - inescapable shock group did not jump to safe side and just took the shock - learned helplessness - escapable shock - dogs quickly learned to jump to safe side - coping mechanisms developed - control group - learned to jump to safety after a few trials - learned to cope Applications to Humans • Press button to turn off loud noise • Groups: (1) Escapable: button worked (2) Inescapable: button did nothing • Part 1: - Results were same as dog study. ie group 2 did nothing and just listened to the noise while group 1 learned to escape the noise • Part 2: they must move finger to other side to turn off noise • Results: only group 1 moved finger Components (1) Contingency: - objective relation between a person’s behaviour and the environment’s outcomes. - exists on a continuum that ranges from outcomes that occur on a random/non-contingent basis to outcomes that occur in synchrony with a person’s behaviour (uncontrollable vs controllable) (2) Cognition: - mental events distort the relationship b/w objective contingencies and subjective control - 3 elements: 1 biases=illusion of control 2 attributions = why we think we have or don't have control - 3 expectancies=subjective personal control beliefs from out past to current situation (3) Behaviour: - coping responses can be lethargic and passive (helpless), or they can be active and assertive (have expectation of control) 22 Helpless Effects (1) Motivational Deficits: - decreased willingness to try - willingness of coping responses decreases or disappears altogether - ex: loud noise experiment (2) Learning Deficits: - an acquired pessimistic set that interferes with one’s ability to learn new response–outcome contingencies - exposure to uncontrollable environments creates an expectation that outcomes are out of their control (3) Emotional Deficits: - affective disruptions in which lethargic, depressive emotional reactions occur in situations that call for active, assertive emotion - once trauma is believed to be unescapable, depression related emotionality occurs Helplessness and Depression • Learned helplessness is a model of natural occurring unipolar depression • Same expectation both cause individual to expect bad events will occur that are out of their control • Same symptoms - passivity, low self-esteem, physical symptoms • Similar therapeutic intervention ex: CBT • Treatment: encourage depressed ppl to get back into life: take small steps and then increase the difficulty • Motivational, learning and emotions gains • Both triggered by traumatic life event • Self efficacy and competence serve as a buffer Hospital Study • 24 depressed patients • Increasing conditions: read aloud, read it w/ feeling, interpret paragraph, argue point of view, give speech • Praised @ each step • 19/24 showed elevated mood Nursing Home Study • Small amount of responsibility has impact on mood and activity • Important for ppl to have some control over their environment 23 Attributions and Explanatory Style • Attribution Style: a causal explanation for why a particular success-failure outcome occurred • 3 Dimensions: (1) Locus: distinguishes b/w internal versus external causes of outcomes (2) Stability: distinguishes b/w stable and unstable causes (3) Controllability: distinguishes b/w controllable and uncontrollable causes Explanatory Style: a relatively stable, cognitively based personality variable that reflects the way • ppl explain the reasons why bad events happen to them using various locus, stability and controllability • Optimistic Explanatory Style: - tendency to explain bad events with attributions that are unstable and controllable - tend to take substantial credit for their successes but accept little or no blame for their failures - readily ignore negative self-related information - delusional - can be an asset to always distort reality to maintain personal efficacy • Pessimistic Explanatory Style: - tendency to explain bad events with attributions that are stable and uncontrollable - giving up in times of failure and setbacks. - associated with academic failure, social distress, physical illness • Alternative Explanations: ppl are motivated to remain passive: activity responding to something may make it worse Reactance Theory Reactance and Helplessness • Reactance: experienced if one expects to have control over situation that they react to a loss of control by becoming more active • Reactance and learned helplessness theories both focus on how people react to uncontrollable outcomes • If person perceives that coping behaviour can affect outcomes, reactance behaviours persist • If person perceives a response–outcome independence they slips into helplessness • Expectations of control foster reactance; expectations of no control foster helplessness • Both arise from outcome expectancies • Reactance response precedes a helplessness response • reactance enhances performance, whereas helplessness undermines it. 24 Hope (1) High Self-Efficacy: - belief in their capacity to accomplish the goals they set for themselves - supports confidence and mastery beliefs supports optimism (2) Clear Pathways: - belief that one has multiple and controllable pathways to goal attainment - closing a pathway does not diminish hope if the performer has a number of alternative pathways to the goal • Hopeful thinking emerges only out of both agentic and pathways thinking • High Hope: (1)Establish specific and short-term, rather than vague and long-term, goals. 
 (2) Set mastery (learning), rather than performance, achievement goals. 
 (3) Rely on self-congruent goals, rather than on self-discordant goals. 
 (4)Engage goals with intrinsic, rather than extrinsic, motivation. 
 (5) Are less easily distracted by external obstacles thoughts and negative feelings. (6)Generate multiple pathways when stumped rather than stick w/ one approach. 
 (7)Have reservoirs of internally generated determination (“I will get this done”; “Keep going!”). 
 Expectancy Value Model • Expectancies: - strongly predict performance - formed based on the person’s past experiences that underlie perceptions of competence, ability beliefs, and task difficulty judgments • Values: - more strongly predict choices - perceived attractiveness of a task, - compared and contrasted to the value of other possible tasks • 4 Components: (1)Interest value: feeling of interest-enjoyment experienced from performing the task. - similar to intrinsic motivation (2)Utility value: - how useful the task is in advancing current and future goals - similar to identified regulation or autonomous self-regulation (3)Attainment value: - personal importance of doing well on the task, - affirms an important part of the person’s identity and self-concept (4) Cost: - represents the negative aspect of engaging in the task. Four aspects of value predict approach versus avoidance choices, • 25 THE SELF AND ITS STRIVINGS The Self Six Facets of Psychological Well-Being (1) Self-Acceptance: - positive evaluation of oneself - High= positive attitude twd self, accepts good and bad qualities and past - Low= dissatisfied w/ self, past life is troubled, wishes they were different (2) Positive Interpersonal Relations: - close relationships with others - High= trusting relationships, concern and empathy for others, - Low= few close relationships, isolated, (3) Autonomy: - self determination and personal causation - High= self-determining; is able to resist social pressures, regulates behaviour from within; evaluates self by personal standards. - Low=concerned about the expectations and evaluations of others, relies on others opinions to make decisions , conforms to peer pressure (4) Environmental Master: - sense of effect in mastering circumstances and challenges - High= mastery and competence in managing the environment, effective use of surroundings, creates suitable context - Low= difficulty managing affairs, feels unable to change environment, lack of control of environment (5) Purpose in Life: - sense of meaning that gives life direction - High= has goals, belief that give life purpose - Low=lack of sense of meaning of life, few goals, no beliefs (6) Personal Growth: - harbouring a development trajectory characterized by improvement - High= open to new experiences, sense of potential, - Low= personal stagnation, lack of improvement 4 Problems of The Self (1) Defining or creating the self : - shows how self-concept energizes and directs behaviour. - some aspects of ourselves are given to us (gender), others we earn (career, friends) (2)Discovering and developing personal potential: - explore interests us, discover values and talents and relationships -requires agency: agent (the self) has the power and intention to act. (3)Managing and regulating the self: - reflect on our capacities, set long-term goals - monitor how well we are accomplishing our goals, and make the adjustments - shows how self-regulation makes competent functioning more likely (4)Relating the self to society -: we contemplate our place in the social world and which societal roles are available 26 - shows how identity energizes, directs, and sustains behaviour - gives the individual some choice and personal responsibility Problem with Self-Esteem • Self-esteem is caused by successes and failures therefore an increase self esteem will do nothing • Must increase skills 
 self-functioning is a cause while self-esteem is only an effect • increases in self-esteem do not cause corresponding increases in achievement or productivity; • rather, increases in achievement and productivity cause corresponding increases in self-esteem • reflects how life is going, but it is not the source of motivation for life to go well Self-Concept Definition • Individuals’ mental representations of themselves • People attend to the feedback they receive day-to-day that reveals their personal attributes, characteristics, and preferences Self-Schemas • Cognitive generalizations about the self that are a collection of domain-specific self-schemas and learned from past experiences - ex: Being shy • Involved in the definition of the self-concept are those life domains that are most important to the person • Specific life domains vary from one person to the next, but these domains illustrate the typical age-related structure of the self-concept Motivational Properties of Self-Schemas (1) Direct an individual’s behaviour in ways that elicit feedback consistent with the established self- schemas - ex: if a person is shy they will direct behaviours to produce feedback that indicated that they are shy • Self-schemas direct behaviours that confirm established self view Motivational tension arises from counter argument b/w self schema and feedback • (2) Generate motivation to move the present self toward a desired future self. • Seeking ideal possible selves is a fundamentally different motivational process than is striving to maintain a consistent self-view. 27 Consistent Self • People preserve a consistent self by actively seeking out information consistent with their self- concept and by ignoring information that contradicts their self-view • Inconsistency generates emotional discomfort that signals that consistency needs to be restored Negative affective state that produces the motivation to seek self-confirmatory, and to avoid self- • disconfirmatory, • We interact with ppl that are consistent wit our self view • Self-discrepant feedback Defence: - maintain a consistent self to distort that information until it loses status - argue its validity, judgement, relevance - compensatory self-inflation, self-affirmation, and new behaviours to prove one’s actual self-view Self-Verification and Self-Concept Change • An individual’s confidence that their self-schema is valid and “self- concept certainty” • When high: - self-concept anchors stable self-schemas - discrepant feedback rarely changes a stable self-schema. • When low: discrepant feedback can change self-schema. • Crisis self-verification: - Conflict between an uncertain self-schema and discrepant feedback - resolve by seeking out additional domain-relevant feedback • Process: - start with a representation of self and a preference for self-confirmatory feedback - daily social interaction tends to generate a steady stream of routine self-verification - ppl can handle mild self-discrepant - if self concept is low, a stronger self-discrepant can overwhelm pre-existing self-schemas and change self concept (only one that causes self concept change) - if self concept is high, the self-discrepant can be resisted - if self concept is moderate, a strong self-discrepant will cause self-verification crisis - during a self-verification crisis, the individual suspends judgment and seeks out additional feedback. - if additional feedback is convincing it does not change self-verification crisis and lowers self- concept making them vulnerable to future change • Self-schemas change requires (1) self-concept must be low and (2) self- discrepant feedback must be potent 28 Possible Selves • Represent individuals’ ideas of what they would like to become and also what they are afraid they might become • Self-schema change can occur through a deliberate effort to advance the present self toward a desired future possible self. Possible selves are of social origin, as the individual observes the selves modelled by others • • Person sees a discrepancy b/w present self and ideal self • Motivational function of a possible self operates like a goal to achieve a desired self • Essential mental representations of attributes that the self does not possess • W/ no evidence to confirm possible self: (1) leads the self to reject and abandon the possible self. (2)possible self can energize and direct action so that the attributes of the self begin to materialize Agency Self as Action and Development from Within • Intrinsic motivation is directly related to the developing self • Source of motivation that underlies agency b/c it energizes the pursuit of interests, seek out environmental challenges, exercise skills, and develop talents • Differentiation and Integration: - two developmental processes inherent within the self - Differentiation=expanding the self into an increasing complexity. - Minimal differentiation = unidimensional understanding of a particular domain of knowledge - Rich differentiation = understanding fine discriminations and unique aspects of a particular life domain - Differentiation does not expand the complexity of the self - Integration= organizational process that brings the self’s differentiated parts into a cohesive self. • Internalization and the Integrating Self: - occurs from the individual’s desire to achieve meaningful relationships motivated by the need for relatedness - occurs from the individual’s desire to interact effectively with the social world motivated by the need for competence. - adaptive interpersonal value for the self, b/c it promotes unity b/w the self and society, • Agency: (1) human beings possess a core self energized by motivation of differentiation and integration (2) not all self-structures are equally authentic 29 future self-regulation. Trim Size: 7.5in x 9.25in Reevec11.tV2 - 09/17/4:20 P.M. PERFORMANCE 318 Chapter 11 The Self and Its Strivings Self-Concordance External Intrinsic • Begins when the person sets a goal FORETHOUGHT SELF-REFLECTION • Goal Setting • Self-Monitoring • Self-concordant goals generate and sustain • Implementation Intentions • Self-Evaluating greater effort overtime Figure 11.Cyclical Phases of Self-Regulation Environmental • Motivated goal attainments foster need-satisfying Pressures NONINTEGRATED ACTION experiences Developing Interests • This experience of authentic need-satisfying SELF- INTEGRATED experiences that increases well-being ACTION • Self-concordant goals arise from an internal InternalCore Values Sanctions perceived locus of causality, • Self-discordant goals arise from an external Introjected Identified perceived locus of causality Figure 11.2Diagrammatic Illustration of Self-Integrated and Nonintegrated Action Source: From “Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model,” by K. M. Sheldon & A. J. Elliot, 1999, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76,482–497.Copyright1999 Personal Strivings American Psychological Association. Reprinted by permission. • Represent what an individual is characteristically aiming to accomplish day-to-day or over a Goal Self-Concordance lifetime × Goal Attainment • Not goals bur may lead to setting goals Need Goal Self- Sustained Goal Satisfying Changes in • Ppl often strive for extrinsic and non-self-concordant reasons that are not endorsed by self ieEffort Attainment Experiences Well-Being social pressure Figure 11.3Self-Concordance Model Source: From “Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model,” by • Personal strivings that cultivate self-concordant goals, personal growth well-being seek greater. J. Elliot, 1999, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76,482–497.Copyright1999 American Psychological Association. Reprinted by permission. autonomy, competence, or relatedness in the person’s life the self with psychological nutriments that sustain well-being and agency motivation • Subjective well-being neither follows nor depends on attaining one’s goals or personal strivings. (Ryan, 1995). • When people strive for autonomy, competence, and relatedness aspirations, they create adyself-testexiststodeterminewhetherapersonalgoalisself-concordantor self-discordant—namely, are you striving for something you want to do or for something meaning to life that creates subjective well-being you have to do? Self-concordant goals (intrinsic goals, identified goals) emanate out of a sense of authenticity and personal ownership—the person is fully aware that the striving is based on a personal interest, need, or value. Accordingly, the desire to pursue self-concordant goals is embedded in a context of positive affect and “wanting to.” Self-Regulation Self-discordant goals (extrinsic goals, introjected goals) emanate out of a sense of Definition • Process of exerting and managing the self to accomplish a long-term goal • Metacognitive planning implementing, monitoring, and evaluating of one’s goal striving efforts • Occurs overtime Forethought Through Reflection • Long-term goal of self regulation involves (1)Planning and strategic thinking (2) Implementing action and self-control (3)Monitoring and checking (4)Reflecting and adjusting • Once a long term goal is set, a plan is generated and goal striving and self-control begins • Goal striving this requires cognitive, motivational and emotional work • Self-control requires suppressing short term goals and distractions 30 • Must monitor goal-performance discrepancy and progress • Must reflect on why self-regulation succeeded or failed and use be updated for the future Developing More Competent Self-Regulation • Takes a long time to develop competent self-regulation Requires intensive mentoring and many hours of deliberate practice on one’s own • • Can acquire, develop, and master complex skills more quickly and more expertly if they have a teacher to model after Self-Control • Capacity to suppress and override an impulsive desire to pursue a long-term goal • Suppressing impulses, urges, desires - resisting sweets • Managing and suppressing emotions - not crying when watching sad movie • Controlling and suppressing thoughts - get rid of unwanted thoughts • Controlling and fixing attention - prolonging perseverance • Making decisions and lots and lots of choices
 Managing the impression one is making on others - present ones self as likeable
 Being kind to and dealing with difficult ,demanding people - • Energy: - after self-control is exercised, ppl lose some of their capacity for future self-control. (1) Amount or strength of willpower is critical to the success of self-control. (2) The exertion of self-control depletes some of this resource, and hence, (3) Subsequent attempts at self-control are increasingly likely to fail. - drop in glucose = drop in energy = exertion of self control • Depletion: people who exert self-control should show a significant drop in their glucose level • Replenishment: glucose intake before a self-control task helps ppl exert self-control • Self-control strength can also be enhanced through practice • Relaxation buffers people from self-control depletion and self-regulation failure • Self-control is therefore limited in the strength it can exert • Marshmallow study: - in children who exert self control and wait for the second marshmallow have a higher degree of self control later in life and sent to be more successful - ex: more attempts at quitting smoking increases will-power once you quit b/c you had a lot of practice resulting in neuroplastic changes • Increasing incentive salience decreases self-control • Increase cognitive control & reduce motivation incentive to increase self-control - ex: give anti-abuse drug that makes you sick to reduce incentive salience • Goal = reduce strength of maladaptive impulses 31 Routes for Better Self-Regulation Self regulation involves inhibitory control (1) Engage Cognitive Control: - give inhibitory mechanism warm up prior to recruitment for self- control - Give “Go-No-Go test” to engage inhibitory mechanisms - If you have more resilience b/c of warm-up exercise you can hold the grip exerciser longer even when your hand being to hurt - Ppl w/ warm anagram try for longer on the impossible puzzles (2) Reduce Incentive salience of motivationally-relevant stimuli: - inhibition-related stimulus devaluation - ex: anti-abuse drugs that induce sickness Neurocognitive Inhibition • Cognitive-Behaviour Paradigm: - assess effect of ignoring distractors, stopping pre-potent actions, limiting preservation on poor goal state - ppl w/ frontal lobe damage cannot inhibit a task and switch to other one (ex: sorting cards) • Single Unit Recording: assess the source and impact of inhibitory signals on neural activity (suppression) • Distractor Devaluations: - ignoring a stimulus negatively affects its emotional tone experimental approach- (1) find every cognitive task in which inhibition has been implicated (2) assess subjective stimulus rating for items in inhibited vs non-inhibited conditions Visual spatial search, temporal search and focused attention • Attention Inhibition: - triggered through conflict-monitoring operations of dACC = alarm centre - controlled by lPFC and implemented through a frontal-parietal attention network - biases perceptual processing and response section in favour of target stimuli and against potential distractor • Motor-response inhibition: - Go/No-go task, stop-signal task causes negative deflection - N2 largest for distractor receiving the lowest affective evaluation - - less lPFC development results in less inhibition later in life • Inhibitory Devaluation: - inhibitory signals are interpreted by fronto-limbic regions as an avoidance-type process that triggers negative affect - associated w/ perceptual details of inhibited stimulus - greater stimulus devaluation associated w/ stronger activation of middle frontal gyrus on No-go trials - OFC activity coupled w/ lPFC - greater OFC activity for items later rated low • Attractiveness test: - prior inhibition significantly reduced rating of attractiveness of both preferred and non preferred sex images 32 Identity Roles • Consists of cultural expectations for behaviour from persons who hold a particular social position - ex: women = mom, professor, friend Ppl change how they're behaviour based on what role they are at that moment • Establishing Behaviours • Individuals have many identities, and present particular identities that is most appropriate for the situation • First task in a social interaction is to define the roles for the self and others. • Once identities have been established, the situation has been defined and smooth interaction can proceed. Confirming Behaviours • Only a subset of those behaviours are appropriate in any one particular setting • They are determined by the identity the person inhabits • Identities direct behaviour, which feedback to maintain and confirm that identity Restoring Behaviours • Restore original identity if it becomes inconsistent (ex mom yells at child) • Behavioural and emotional displays provide identity-relevant information of who that person is • Behaviours and emotions can be used to restore one’s temporarily identity EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Quasi-Needs Definition • Situationally induced desire that creates a tense energy to engage rather immediately and impulsively in that specific behaviour that is capable of reducing the situationally induced built-up tension. • Situationally induced wants and desires that are not actually need • They affect cognition, emotion, and behaviour • Day to day circumstances constantly remind of our quasi needs • Can carry within them a sense of urgency that can dominate consciousness and overwhelm and displace other needs. satisfying a situational demand or pressure, stratifies a quasi-need • 33 • Originate from situational events that promote a psychological sense of tension, pressure, and urgency within us • Strength of a quasi need is dependent on the amount of pressure it has Extrinsic Motivation Definition • Environmentally created reason to engage in an action • Arises from: (1)environmental incentives and consequences, such as food, money, praise, attention etc (2) consequence that is separate from the activity itself • Extrinsic motivation is an environmentally created reason to initiate or persist in an action. • “Do this and you will get this” Incentives Consequences and Reward • Operant conditioning: process by which a person learns how to operate effectively in the environment • Learning behaviours that produce positive consequences (ex: approval) and avoiding ones that don't • S∶R→C situational cue (incentive) , behavioural response, and consequence (reward) Incentives An environmental event that attracts or repels a person twd or away from initiating a course of • action • Incentives always precede behaviour (S : R) • Incentive value of an environmental event is learned via experience and shapes goal-directed behaviour, • Incentives differ from consequences on the basis of (1) when each occurs (2) how it motivates behaviour • Consequences always follow behaviour (R → C) and increase or decrease the persistence of behaviour. Reinforcers • Any environmental object or event that increases behaviour • Must be defined in a manner that is independent from its effects on behaviour, it becomes circular if it is not - ie: reinforcer increases behaviour but increase behaviour means increase reinforcement 34 • Only way to identify a reinforcer is to give it and then wait and see if it increases behaviour. • Why reinforcers increase behaviour: (1) decreases drive (2)decreases arousal - calming effect of drug - decrease in hunger (3) increases arousal - increase stimulation (4) attractive to a person -money (5) feels food - stimulation of nucleus accumbens reinforces behaviour (6)makes it possible to do something fun Managing Behaviour by Offering Reinforcers • Reinforcers vary in their quality : money is better than praise • Immediacy at which a reinforcer is delivered partly determines its effectiveness. (receiving reward immediately was more effective than delayed schedule) Consequences • Positive Reinforcers: - any environmental stimulus when added increa
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