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SOAN 2111 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Catharine Macaulay, Montesquieu, Radical Feminism

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2111
Linda Hunter
Study Guide

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Classical Theories: Theorists Overview (Midterm 2)
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778):
Find a social order whose laws were in greatest harmony with the fundamental laws of nature.
Natural Man is peaceful, Social Man is warlike
Social contract enables individuals to be absorbed into the common “general will” without losing
his own will.
Rousseau believed that there were biological differences that made men superior to women. (Can
be compared to Wollstonecraft)
Society corrupts us. Rousseau believed in embracing emotions and being more in tune with
Very concerned with the faults of society and the aristocracy. Social contract corrupts us.
Society makes us go against our human nature and makes us greedy in order to get ahead.
The only individual who is free within society is the king.
Enlightenment thinker but more interested in emotion than reason.
Believed that reason wasn’t the solution of social problems. Emotions and empathy towards
others would get society to a better place.
Refers to “primitive man” as natural virtues of humanity. These natural men don’t try to fool
people into liking them and lives in harmony with nature.
Even though we are people are intended to be free society does not allow us to be free.
Rousseau writes about the social view of motherhood. According to Rousseau upper class
women considered their children to be a burden and they were not interested by raising their own
children. Rousseau argued that women should nurse and care for their own children.
It was the period known as the Call to True Motherhood. The French Revolution helped move
this period along. Good motherhood = stability within the state (micro to macro).
Talked largely about laws in regards to the sciences and social sciences. Applied science laws to
social science.
His work is based on his travels. He travelled the world and observed other cultures’ society and
social rules and the impact they had on the people.
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