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SOAN 2112 Study Guide - Final Guide: Complex Number, For Marx, Mechanical And Organic Solidarity

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2112
Linda Hunter
Study Guide

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Focused on statistics, took a rational approach to public administration and
Empiricist, using advanced data and charts to improve lives
Complained that government did not look at statistics, and therefore were
legislating without the knowledge or awareness of their potential consequences
Believed if social sciences were approached with the same level of
certainty(quality/regulation?) as physical sciences the results would be equally
accurate what
An example would be her input/outlook on medicine, correct? What was her outlook
on medicine?>>> -
Yes. She was focused on theories that were backed by statistics and fact. The
opposite would be like Mead. If Mead explained his theory to Nightingale she
would tell him that none of that can be confirmed and is irrelevant.
Bless you, whoever wrote this. You’re welcome :) Someone should do this for weber. Would
be pretty neat
^ trying not to focus on weber because he would be better used for a long answer
Theoretical Approach:
Theories followed her religious background, but took a more positive approach.
She believed that heroism and virtue should be the focus rather than repenting for
Nightingale focused on real social change, not just temporary fixes. Giving to the
poor does not help their situation, educating them on how to use this money to
relieve themselves from poverty is the only way to effect change.
Macro level: thought individual theories had their place, but broad social theory is
the only way to understand society and change it for the better
May be worth mentioning that Nightingale, like Durkheim, believed societal factors
had a major effect on rates of suicide
1. Compare/contrast Marx, Weber and Durkheim (I think this will be a long answer)
1. To Marx, the division of labour and technological advancements led to alienation
and exploitation and thought they needed to be broken up for capitalism to work
1.1. But Weber said that the bureaucratic system was too powerful to be
destroyed as it promotes impersonal and instrumental approaches
1.2. Durkheim saw the division of labour as highly functional and was
optimistic about it - saying it aids the interest of all classes in society. But
he was concerned with the lack of regulation and saw a reform as a better
solution than a revolution
2. All 3 theorists thought science would have an effect on traditional religious views
as secularization came into play
3. Marx concerned about political and economic freedom and in contrast, Durkheim
believed in organic solidarity: similar to a biological organism, every part of
society works together - a more complex division of labour based on a capitalist
4. For Marx, one’s position in society was relative to class, but for Weber it was
relative to class, status, party and power
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