# SOAN 2120 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Type I And Type Ii Errors, Random Assignment, John Cena

by OC625635

School

University of GuelphDepartment

Sociology and AnthropologyCourse Code

SOAN 2120Professor

David WaltersStudy Guide

MidtermThis

**preview**shows pages 1-3. to view the full**16 pages of the document.**Lecture 12

Testing (strongest impact when the pre test and post tests are close)

history and maturation (Strongest impact when the pre test and post tests are

further apart)

history has its strongest effect when there is a pre test

some people proceed if the pre tests are the same. But that is not necessarily mean

you are safe, because people need to be the same on all possible variables that

influence the dep var

selection bias is an internal validity threat that is likely when you dont have random

assignment

Think of internal validity as : is the experiment internally valid. Or is there

something about (internal) to the design that impacts the outcome. External

validity: is the experimental valid in the real world. Similar to generalizability as I

discussed it before midterm number one

Main effect: when one variable has an effect on the dependent variable. The

interaction effect is when the effect depends on another level (category) of the

other variable.

factorial designs: two or more independent variables in combination.

main effects: present in single treatment designs

interaction effects: produce an effect beyond that of each variable alone

Ethnography comes from cultural anthropology. Ethno means people or folk, and

graphy means describing something. Ethnography means describing a culture and

understanding another way of life from the native point of view.

Ethnography assumes that people make inferences - that is go beyond what is

explicitly seen or said to what is meant or implied.

What two types of designs does a Solomon Four Group Design combine?-

combination of classical and a prexperimental design (two group post testing)

3*3 factorial design is. That's a bonus

John Cena does not like cross-tabs, borderline cases or none of the above

John Cena likes correlation and Anova

Factorial designs use more than one independent variable. Maybe you'd look at the

effect of gender, sex, and age on income

Hypothesis Testing as a Decision Making Problem

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-There are four possible outcomes when we conduct a hypothesis test

1. If H0 is not correct and we reject it, we have made the correct decision

2. If the null H0 is correct and we accept it, we have made the correct decision

3. If H0 is correct and we reject it, we have made a Type I Error

4. If H0 is not correct and we accept it, we have made a Type II Error

-Understand the relationship between alpha levels (ex. .05 and .01) and the propensity

to make a Type I or Type II Error

-Easier to reject the null at 95 than 99 because you don’t have to be as confident

oAlso easier to incorrectly reject it

oHe said think about this until review class kk homie

Three Types of Analyses

-Two variables classified as quantitative versus categorical

oIf both variables are quantitative, there is a correlation

oTwo categorical variables, there is a cross-tab

oOne quantitative, one categorical – analysis of variance

-Categorical (qualitative variables)

oGender (1 male 2 female 3 other) region (4 west 3 ontario 2 quebec 1 east)

(1 strongly agree 2 neither agree or disagree 3 strongly disagree – NOT

ORDINAL – Not quantitative because there are NOT 4 CATEGORIES – IT IS

THEREFORE CATEGORICAL)

Ordinal level are treated as quantitative because they have at least 4

categories

-Midterm Question: which technique would be used to examine the relationship

between the following variables?

oGender and the variable for whether or not you think the PM is doing a good

job?

One quantitative one categorical – cross tab

Starts at Type

Null is true and you turn it down and you reject it is a type one error

If the alternative is null and you fail to reject the null= type 2 error

We do not know if we made an error. One way there is a small chance we are making a mistake.

Multiple Choice Questions

If a researcher selects an alpha level of .05 instead of .01

She needs to be 95 percent confident as opposed to 99.9 percent

a) She would potentially be less likely to make a type 1 error

b) The chance of making a type 1 error would be unaffected

c) She would potentially be more likely to make a type 1 error

d) The chance of making a type 11 error would be unaffected

Midterm 2:

In addition to acdc, there will be abba

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Variable classification

-Analyze the relationship between two variables

a. Categorical – gender, marital status

b. Quantitative – education

-Other acceptable quantitative variables

-Conceptually continuous (ordinal) likert scale – as long as it has 4 categories

Lecture 14

Tuesday November 1st

Field Research

-Terminology – refer to the same thing

-Anthropology – most anthropologists use participant observation

oBased on the concept of naturalism – observe people in their home/natural

environment

-No statistics or mathematics, just face-to-face social interactions with people in their

home environment

-Generates qualitative, descriptive data

-Participant observation is used when other methods are not practical

-Much less structured – social environment and interactions guide the study

-Focus groups – do not confuse with participant observation – much smaller groups and

you tap into their ideas. Still qualitative but not the same objective

-Focus groups are 8-12 individuals where you survey them in a 90 minute period. You do

this to tap into their opinions. They are in the private sector where they get your

opinions about a topic

-Field research is not focusing in one the private sector but rather acedmia to publish in a

peer reviewed journal

Ethnography

-Describing a culture and understanding another way of life from your own perspective

(interpretive school)

-Displays of behaviour do not give meaning – instead someone tries to understand what

is meant by the behaviour

-The reality of the members (meant or implied) – what is implied by the behaviour is the

most important

Ethnomethodology encompasses the theory, the philosophy, and the method

oFindings are the result of the method used as from the social life or environment

-Social interaction is a process of reality construction

-“The study of common-sense” – specialized and highly detailed analysis of micro-

situations (transcripts, conversations, videotape). Analyze behaviour, mannerism,

language

-The results we get are contributed to the methods we get

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