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SOAN 2120 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Type I And Type Ii Errors, Random Assignment, John Cena


Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2120
Professor
David Walters
Study Guide
Midterm

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Lecture 12
Testing (strongest impact when the pre test and post tests are close)
history and maturation (Strongest impact when the pre test and post tests are
further apart)
history has its strongest effect when there is a pre test
some people proceed if the pre tests are the same. But that is not necessarily mean
you are safe, because people need to be the same on all possible variables that
influence the dep var
selection bias is an internal validity threat that is likely when you dont have random
assignment
Think of internal validity as : is the experiment internally valid. Or is there
something about (internal) to the design that impacts the outcome. External
validity: is the experimental valid in the real world. Similar to generalizability as I
discussed it before midterm number one
Main effect: when one variable has an effect on the dependent variable. The
interaction effect is when the effect depends on another level (category) of the
other variable.
factorial designs: two or more independent variables in combination.
main effects: present in single treatment designs
interaction effects: produce an effect beyond that of each variable alone
Ethnography comes from cultural anthropology. Ethno means people or folk, and
graphy means describing something. Ethnography means describing a culture and
understanding another way of life from the native point of view.
Ethnography assumes that people make inferences - that is go beyond what is
explicitly seen or said to what is meant or implied.
What two types of designs does a Solomon Four Group Design combine?-
combination of classical and a prexperimental design (two group post testing)
3*3 factorial design is. That's a bonus
John Cena does not like cross-tabs, borderline cases or none of the above
John Cena likes correlation and Anova
Factorial designs use more than one independent variable. Maybe you'd look at the
effect of gender, sex, and age on income
Hypothesis Testing as a Decision Making Problem
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-There are four possible outcomes when we conduct a hypothesis test
1. If H0 is not correct and we reject it, we have made the correct decision
2. If the null H0 is correct and we accept it, we have made the correct decision
3. If H0 is correct and we reject it, we have made a Type I Error
4. If H0 is not correct and we accept it, we have made a Type II Error
-Understand the relationship between alpha levels (ex. .05 and .01) and the propensity
to make a Type I or Type II Error
-Easier to reject the null at 95 than 99 because you don’t have to be as confident
oAlso easier to incorrectly reject it
oHe said think about this until review class kk homie
Three Types of Analyses
-Two variables classified as quantitative versus categorical
oIf both variables are quantitative, there is a correlation
oTwo categorical variables, there is a cross-tab
oOne quantitative, one categorical – analysis of variance
-Categorical (qualitative variables)
oGender (1 male 2 female 3 other) region (4 west 3 ontario 2 quebec 1 east)
(1 strongly agree 2 neither agree or disagree 3 strongly disagree – NOT
ORDINAL – Not quantitative because there are NOT 4 CATEGORIES – IT IS
THEREFORE CATEGORICAL)
Ordinal level are treated as quantitative because they have at least 4
categories
-Midterm Question: which technique would be used to examine the relationship
between the following variables?
oGender and the variable for whether or not you think the PM is doing a good
job?
One quantitative one categorical – cross tab
Starts at Type
Null is true and you turn it down and you reject it is a type one error
If the alternative is null and you fail to reject the null= type 2 error
We do not know if we made an error. One way there is a small chance we are making a mistake.
Multiple Choice Questions
If a researcher selects an alpha level of .05 instead of .01
She needs to be 95 percent confident as opposed to 99.9 percent
a) She would potentially be less likely to make a type 1 error
b) The chance of making a type 1 error would be unaffected
c) She would potentially be more likely to make a type 1 error
d) The chance of making a type 11 error would be unaffected
Midterm 2:
In addition to acdc, there will be abba
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Variable classification
-Analyze the relationship between two variables
a. Categorical – gender, marital status
b. Quantitative – education
-Other acceptable quantitative variables
-Conceptually continuous (ordinal) likert scale – as long as it has 4 categories
Lecture 14
Tuesday November 1st
Field Research
-Terminology – refer to the same thing
-Anthropology – most anthropologists use participant observation
oBased on the concept of naturalism – observe people in their home/natural
environment
-No statistics or mathematics, just face-to-face social interactions with people in their
home environment
-Generates qualitative, descriptive data
-Participant observation is used when other methods are not practical
-Much less structured – social environment and interactions guide the study
-Focus groups – do not confuse with participant observation – much smaller groups and
you tap into their ideas. Still qualitative but not the same objective
-Focus groups are 8-12 individuals where you survey them in a 90 minute period. You do
this to tap into their opinions. They are in the private sector where they get your
opinions about a topic
-Field research is not focusing in one the private sector but rather acedmia to publish in a
peer reviewed journal
Ethnography
-Describing a culture and understanding another way of life from your own perspective
(interpretive school)
-Displays of behaviour do not give meaning – instead someone tries to understand what
is meant by the behaviour
-The reality of the members (meant or implied) – what is implied by the behaviour is the
most important
Ethnomethodology encompasses the theory, the philosophy, and the method
oFindings are the result of the method used as from the social life or environment
-Social interaction is a process of reality construction
-“The study of common-sense” – specialized and highly detailed analysis of micro-
situations (transcripts, conversations, videotape). Analyze behaviour, mannerism,
language
-The results we get are contributed to the methods we get
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