SOAN 2120- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 69 pages long!)

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U of G
SOAN 2120
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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WEEK #2 Tuesday, September 12, 2017. Lecture 2:
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Variables- quantitative methods***
Conflict- critical perspective, Karl Marx.. society is organized around conflict and competing groups… inequality is bad
(rich vs. Poor), means of production which leads to class struggle, fights evolve from gaps from have and have-nots, equality
of result: everyone is equal in terms of wealth, power, etc
Functionalism: Durkheim- If something exists (inequality), it serves a purpose, and it is needed to keep society productive.
Make people want to strive for better… Consensus among everyone that inequality is needed and everyone has the same
opportunity to achieve better (equality of opportunity).
Symbolic Interactionism: Max Weber.. Individual level.. interpretative school- don’t focus on reality or facts. Focus on why
they did it, not what they did.. observe behaviour and figure out why they do what they do… focus on peoples perceptions
of reality. use qualitative methods
Types of theories:
Testable theories
Non testable theories
Karl Marx: Ranked 7/1000 influential person
Non-testable theories
Capitalism- most powerful force on the planet
Agrued over time, rich will get richer and poor get poorer… poor would become educated and realized their exploitation
and overthrow the rich, creating a new group……
Brilliant but criticized because they can’t be tested
Testable theories
Theory: uofg students smarter than other universities
Indirectly through hypothesis (test it)
Evidence from results to support theory
Quantitative research:
1. Experiments: manipulate subjects (weed, mushrooms, water)
2. Survey research: do not manipulate subjects
Data you get is numerical data
Cell A : treatment group
Cell B: non-treatment group
Survey Research:
Do not manipulate subjects
Create variables (anything that varies) by asking questions
Quantitative variables: (numbers, can rank)
Continuous (rank), numerical
E.g. education (years of schooling), income (dollars), age, hours worked per week, hours watching tv per week,
Categorical variable (categories, no ranks)
No rank order, non-numerical
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e.g. marital status, religion, province, gender: male/female, field of study(arts, business, biology), experiment (treatment,
control)
Ordinal level variables: in-between and treat them as quantitative groupings
Continuous values
Education- Can be ranked from high to low,
Likert Scale Variables- 5 strongly agree.. 1 strongly disagree…
As long as they have 4 categories we treat them as quantitative
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