SOAN 2120 Study Guide - Group 12 Element, Sig Sauer P226, Nonprobability Sampling

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1. Chapter 1
Name four errors in inquiry, the consequences of each and the respective potential solutions.
2. What is the difference between a modern and post-modern worldview? How does each perceive
truth?
3. Fill in the blanks: “To oversimplify just a bit, scientific theory deals with the __________ aspects of
science, whereas data collection deals with the ___________ aspect” (Babbie & Benaquisto, 2010,
p13).
4. What is a theory? (i.e. define and explain)
5. True or false: Scientific inquiry can resolve “whether capitalism is better or worse than socialism”
(Babbie & Benaquisto, 2010, p13). Explain your response.
6. What does aggregate mean, and what is its relevance to scientific inquiry?
7. Define the term „variable‟ and explain its relevance in terms of scientific inquiry.
8. What is the relationship between „social concepts‟, „attributes‟ and „variables‟? What is the difference
in the case of describing and explaining in any given scientific theory? (note: provide an example or
two to illustrate your answer)
9. Define „independent variable‟ and „dependent variable‟, and explain the relationship between the
two (e.g., given prejudice and education, which would be the dependent variable? Explain).
10. Define „nomothetic‟ and „idiographic‟, and explain the difference between the two in the case of
scientific inquiry. Provide an example in which you would use one over the other. Is one better than
the other?
11. Define „induction‟ and „deduction‟, and provide an example for each.
12. What is the difference between „qualitative‟ and „quantitative‟ data? What are the advantages
(and/or limitations) of each? Is one form better than the other (according to the text)?
13. Fill in the blanks: “…the qualitative approach seems more aligned with _____________
explanations, while nomothetic explanations are more easily achieved through ____________ ”
(Babbie & Benaquisto, 2010, p25).
14. What is the difference between „pure‟ and „apllied‟ research? Is one better than the other?
15. What are the two basic ethical issues in social scientific inquiry? Explain the importance of each.
1. Chapter 2
According to the text, the singular purpose of a theory is the provision of logical explanation - True
or false?
2. What are the three functions served by theories (identified in the text)?
3. Define the term „paradigm‟ and explain its importance to social scientific inquiry.
4. Define and explain the difference between „macrotheory‟ and „microtheory‟. Provide an example for
each.
5. Identify (i.e. name) the six paradigms identified in the text, and provide a short summary for each
(i.e. explain that which makes each paradigm distinctly different from the others, how it might be
applied, etc). Which one(s) do you gravitate to the most?
6. What is the criticism of positivism, both generally and according to more radical perspectives? Why
are these critiques important?
7. Fill in the blanks: “_____________ are general frameworks or viewpoints…they provide ways of
looking at life are grounded in sets of assumptions about the nature of reality. ______________, by
contrast, are systemic sets of interrelated statements intended to explain some aspects of social
life” (Babbie & Benaquisto, 2010, p41).
8. Another word for „postulates‟ is ____________. Define this term, including its relation to scientific
theory.
9. Define the term „proposition‟ and its relation to scientific theory.
10. Define the term „hypothesis‟ and its relation to scientific theory.
11. What does „operationalization‟ mean, and why is it important? Provide an example of an
operationalized hypothesis.
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12. Fill in the blanks: “Scientists have to be masters of their operational definitions for the sake of
precision in ______________, ______________, and ______________” (Babbie & Benaquisto,
2010, p43).
13. A hypothesis can be conceived as being formed according to the following three components:
_________________, _________________, and _________________. Explain. (Note: if you are
not sure, to find the answer, refer to Figure 2.2 on page 44)
14. Define and summarize „hypothesis testing‟ using the „Discrimination in Canada‟ illustration from the
text.
15. What is the difference between „deductive reasoning‟ and „inductive reasoning‟?
16. Fill in the blanks: “In _____________ one starts from observed data and develops a generalization
which explains the relationship between the objects observed. On the other hand, in
______________ one starts from some general law and applies it to a particular instance” (Babbie
& Benaquisto, 2010, p46).
17. Explain Figure 2.3 on page 49.
18. What is the „Wheel of Science‟? Draw it.
19. How would you go about constructing a deductive theory? Be as specific as possible about each
step, and provide an example.
20. Name the “two important elements in science” (Babbie & Benaquisto, 2010, p53), and explain why
they are important.
21. How would you go about constructing an inductive theory? Be as specific as possible about each
step, and provide an example.
22. Fill in the blanks: “Ultimately, science rests on two pillars: ______________ and
______________” (Babbie & Benaquisto, 2010, p55). Explain the significance of each.
Chapter 3
1. What is the Tuskegee Syphillis Study and why is it an important case?
2. What major ethical concern is the Milgram experiment usually used to illustrate? In contrast, what
major ethical concern is the Zimbardo prison experiment usually used to illustrate? Name at least
four other potential risks/harms to research subjects that must be avoided (as outlined in the text).
3. What three major granting agencies form(ed) the Tri-Council, and what was their primary goal in
coming together?
4. What are the eight „Guiding Ethical Principles‟ for research involving human according to the Tri-
Council Policy Statement?
5. R.E.B. is an acronym for _______________________ and its role/purpose is to …
6. What is one way that Statistics Canada protects the confidentiality of individual research
participants?
7. Name and explain three different types of disclosure.
8. The text outlines a number of important ethical agreements in social research. Identify and
summarize each ethical agreement (include an explanation of why each is significant, consequential
limitations, etc). [Note these are captured by five broad headings in the text]
9. Fill in the blanks: “...the scientific goal of ______________ is threatened if experimental subjects
or survey respondents are only the kinds of people who willingly participate in such things” (Babbie
& Benaquisto, 2010, p65). Why is this the case?
10. What is the difference between „confidentiality‟ and „anonymity‟? Why is this distinction important?
11. Fill in the blank: If deception is necessary (i.e. for the experiment to be effective), the research is
required to _____________ his/her participants following the experiment. Why? Additionally,
provide a definition for the term.
12. What are some of the key ethical concerns raised by the Tearoom Trade experiment?
1.
Chapter 4
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Identify and explain the three main purposes of social research. Think of a potentially valid
experiment to exemplify each.
2. Explain how causation is differentially related to idiographic and nomothetic models of explanation.
3. Using the textbook example of trying to understand prejudice, describe the differential approaches
given (i) an idiograhpic approach, and then (ii) a nomothetic approach.
4. What are the three main criteria for nomothetic causality? Be sure to define and describe the central
terms for each criterion.
5. Fill in the blanks: “When [researchers] say one variable causes another, they do not necessarily
mean to suggest _______________, to account for _______________, or to claim that the
causation exists in _______________” (Babbie & Banaquisto, 2010, p86). Explain why each cannot
account for causality.
6. Define and explain the difference between „necessary causes‟ and „sufficient causes‟.
7. It is possible to discover single causes that are absolutely necessary and absolutely sufficient. True
or false? Explain your claim.
8. What is the relationship between „necessary causes‟ and „sufficient causes‟ and idiograhpic and
nomothetic approaches?
9. What is a „unit of analysis‟? Provide as many examples of common units of analysis as possible.
10. What is the relationship between (i) „units of analysis‟ and aggregates, and (ii) „units of analysis‟
and „units of observation‟?
11. Fill in the blanks: “Units of analysis, then, are those things we _______________ in order to create
_______________ of all such units and to _______________ differences among them” (Babbie &
Banaquisto, 2010, p90).
12. Name and explain TWO faulty reasonings about units of analysis, and provide examples for each.
13. Fill in the blanks: “Although the patterns observed between _______________ at the level of
groups may be genuine, the danger lies in reasoning from the observed attributes of individuals of
_______________ to the attributes of _______________ who made up those groups when we
have not actually _______________” (Babbie & Banaquisto, 2010, p97). What does this statement
mean?/Why is this distinction significant?
14. Fill in the blanks: “…research design [is] a process for deciding _______________ we shall observe,
of _______________, and for _______________” (Babbie & Banaquisto, 2010, p97).
15. Explain how and why time is an especially important dimension in research.
16. Explain the difference between „cross-sectional‟ and „longitudinal‟ research studies. What are the
pros and cons of each?
17. Define and then explain the similarities and difference between „trend‟, „cohort‟, and „panel‟ studies.
18. What does „attrition‟ mean? Why is it significant?
19. Identify strategies that can be used to approximate longitudinal studies. What are the strengths and
limitations of using these strategies?
20. What are the necessary factors involved in and stages for designing a research project? Explain
each factor and stage in the content of an example of your own.
21. Fill in the blanks: “…research design involves a set of decisions regarding _______________ is to
be studied among which _______________ with which _______________for _______________”
(Babbie & Banaquisto, 2010, p109).
22. What does the term „triangulation‟ refer to exactly, and why is it important? Provide an example of
„triangulation‟ in a research study (real or imagined).
23. When might it be useful to compose a research proposal, and what are the nine basic elements you
would likely want to be sure to include?
1.
Chapter 5
Researchers are able to measure anything that exists, including love and hate for instance - True or
false?
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