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Midterm

# Midterm 2 Review.docx

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Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 3120
Professor
Michelle Dumas

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10/31/2013
Chapter 17-Review
-sampling chapter 8
identify the population in a sampling situation
recognize bias due to voluntary response samples and other inferior sampling methods; people respond to
random surveys typically because they have a strong opinion about what is being asked
use Table B of random digits to select a SRS from a population
know different ways of sampling: stratified random sampling (stratify by region)
Recognize the presence of under coverage and nonresponse as sources od error in a sample survey
Ex- the survey found that 76% of males and 86% of females in the sample had visited a general practitioner
at least once in the past year. Do you think these estimates are close to the truth about the population; yes
because the sample size is large enough to be accurate
-experiments chapter 9
recognize whether a study is observational study or an experiment
recognize bias due to confounding of explanatory variables with lurking variables in either observational or
experimental studies
identify the factors (explanatory), treatments, response variables and individuals or subjects in an
experiment
use table B of random digits to carry out the random assignments of subjects to groups in a completely
randomized experiment
recognize the double-blind technique and when it should be used
Ex-gender, age, education etc. are generally explanatory variables
-probability chapter 10
probability describes the long-run regularity of random phenomenon
understand that the probability of an event is the proportion of times the event occurs in very many
repetitions of random phenomenon. Use the idea of probability as long-run proportion to think about
probability
recognize that sampling spaces are all possible outcomes. Know how they are presented
use the basic probability rules to detect illegitimate assignments of probability;
any probability must be a number between 0 and 1 ( 0 to 100%)
the total probability assigned to all possible outcomes must be 1
use basic probability riles to find the probabilities of events that are formed from other events
the probability that an event does not occur is 1 minus its probability
if two events are disjoint, the probability that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual
probabilities
dijjoint event cannot occur together (I,e, no A AND B)
use the notation of random variables to make compact statements about random outcomes, such as P (x
bar < 4) = 0.3
be able to interpret such statements
use the geberal addition rule to find probabilities that onvolve overlapping events (chapter 12)
use multiplication rule for independent events to find the probability that all of several independent events
occur (chapter 12)
= P (A) + P (B) – P (A-B)
Ex-flip a coin 3 times, how many outcomes are possible:
-first, you need all possible outcomes
-sample space of outcomes:
-S= HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, HTT, THT, TTH, TTT
-notice: each flip has two possible outcomes, so three flips has 2x2x2= 8 possible outcomes
-probability of each outcome = 1/8 (8 possible outcomes)
Ex-what’s the chance that you wont pull out a blue
P (not blue) 1-P(blue)
=1- 0.24
= 0.76
Ex- toss a coin 10 times, record number of heads that occur
How many possible outcomes: 210 =1,024 possible outcomes
-sampling distributions (chapter 11)
identify parameters and statistics in a sampling study
interpret a sampling distribution as describing the values taken by a statistic in all possible repetitions of a
sample or experiments under the same conditions
interpret the sampling distribution of a statistic as describing the probabilities of its possible values
Ex- 100 numbers dialed, 48% are unlisted, 52% of LA phones are unlisted

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Description
10/31/2013 Chapter 17­Review ­sampling chapter 8 identify the population in a sampling situation recognize bias due to voluntary response samples and other inferior sampling methods; people respond to  random surveys typically because they have a strong opinion about what is being asked use Table B of random digits to select a SRS from a population know different ways of sampling: stratified random sampling (stratify by region) Recognize the presence of under coverage and nonresponse as sources od error in a sample survey Ex­ the survey found that 76% of males and 86% of females in the sample had visited a general practitioner  at least once in the past year. Do you think these estimates are close to the truth about the population; yes  because the sample size is large enough to be accurate  ­experiments chapter 9 recognize whether a study is observational study or an experiment recognize bias due to confounding of explanatory variables with lurking variables in either observational or  experimental studies identify the factors (explanatory), treatments, response variables and individuals or subjects in an  experiment use table B of random digits to carry out the random assignments of subjects to groups in a completely  randomized experiment recognize the double­blind technique and when it should be used Ex­gender, age, education etc. are generally explanatory variables  ­probability chapter 10 probability describes the long­run regularity of random phenomenon understand that the probability of an event is the proportion of times the event occurs in very many  repetitions of random phenomenon. Use the idea of probability as long­run proportion to think about  probability recognize that sampling spaces are all possible outcomes. Know how they are presented use the basic probability rules to detect illegitimate assignments of probability; any probability must be a number between 0 and 1 ( 0 to 100%) the total probability assigned to all possible outcomes must be 1 use basic probability riles to find the probabilities of events that are formed from other events the probability that an event does not occur is 1 minus its probability if two events are disjoint, the probability that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual  probabilities dijjoint event cannot occur together (I,e, no A AND B) use the notation of random variables to make compact statements about random outcomes, such as P (x  bar
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