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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2111
Linda Hunter

06202014Midterm 1What are the main components of positivism interpretive and critical What are the arguments for and against these frameworksApplying theory or framework to situationWhat do Hobbes Rousseau and Locke say about the social contractHow are they the same and how do they differScientific Revolution The reformation Why did the printing press influence the expansion of ideasGave books to individuals People could read for themselvesEasy and fairly cheap to mass produceAstell and feminist theoriesAstell and LockAstell was a significant woman theorist who believed in empiricism and feminist theory She believed in the positivist empiricism approach and explained it using Cartesian terminology Astell believed that in order to gain knowledge you had to experience something with your own sense ie smell taste touch hear see Simply listening to someone elses opinion would not allow for knowledge to be fully gained Instead reasoning and forming ones own opinion was the basis of acquiring knowledge In addition Astelle fully believed in feminist theory and the rights of women to obtain education She believed women were given the same minds as men by God and based her theories on this premise Astelle believed that all human beings were born as passionate beings and could sometimes be driven by these passions Although she recognized them as being beneficial and unique she also acknowledged their ability to cloud the judgment of human beings Thus she placed great emphasis on reason to balance on animal instincts John Locke and Mary Astell are similar in their beliefs around empirical knowledge Both theorists believed knowledge is derived by experience John Locke believed in a tabula rasa or a blank slate Mary Astell believed we were passionate beings but learned from our surrounding and experiences Astell believed in Toryism and to a certain extent utilitarian principle of the greatest good for the greatest amount of people Astell was convincedthat by having more then you need an individual was stealing from those less fortunate She did believe the divine right to rule Although Lock differed in his belief of the divine right to rule he did believe that some individuals that have too much have a negative impact on society Rousseau Locke HobbesRousseau believed that man was born free but everywhere he was in chainsIn terms of a social contract this meant that the natural state of man was without governmentRousseau felt that the natural man was peaceful but became warlike only after he entered society He viewed the social contract as negative and believed the government was only their to protect the private property of the rich Government can cause social inequality and class differences that can lead to man abandoning his own willRousseau believed societys will should be of the individualConversely Hobbes believed that the social man is peaceful and the natural man is warlike Therefore Hobbes believes government is essential for man living in a peaceful state with each other Man desires power and will do anything he can to obtain it which creates conflict and war For Hobbes the social contract involves man giving up power to the government in order for protection from fellow man Having an authority makes the social man peaceful as he is afraid of the consequences of being warlike Hobbes believes that man should give up freedom for protection and that society should follow the authority even if he is a tyrant as he will still provide protection Locke differs from both Rousseau and Hobbes in his view of man and government Locke believes that man is born with a blank slate and learns through experience He believes that the government should facilitate the ability of man to live without fear Locke thinks that man owns whatever he labors for and the government should protect his property For Locke social contract states that the government creates boundaries that protects property of the individual and also promotes the common good Midterm 3PositivismTheoristsSaint SimonAugust ComteHarriett MartineauAlexis de TocquevilleHarriet TaylorJohn Stuart MillMarxEngelsFilmsRoots DocumentaryPlace of the Boss DocumentaryManufacturing ConsentWhat is JusticeMoney for NothingClipsMansfield ParkEmmaWaking LifeThe idea is traced back to Aristotle and Hegel The thesis what is is always challenged to reveal the possibility of what is within it One cannot comprehend the existing order or free its potential unless it is critically opposed and ultimately transcendedThe possibility of revolution rests upon certain economic and political conditions going through a stage of thesis antithesis and synthesis anti does not mean it is wrongjust oppositeThere is a dialectic interplay between classes in society of opposing class interests and this brings about historical qualitative changeAffirmation thesis Negation antithesis Reconciliation synthesis of opposites Through qualitative change there will be the gradual destruction of the old system and a new system comes abouta qualitative change Historical stages in society go through these transformationsAs discussed in your reading every system of economic production begins by an affirmationthen there are new technological inventionsantithesis and then a new order must be overcome by a social revolution which creates anew order of productiona synthesisAfter the French Revolution there a more defined segregation between the rich and poor The living conditions of the poor were diminishing There becomes this concern with social movements the state of society and it leads people to want to study the social question This leads to the use of statistics to study society and the idea that natural laws should be extended to society A change in society from aristocracy to meritocracy Religion became less important and we see major figures who are atheist or agnostic
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