Week 11 Summaries.docx

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University of Guelph
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2111
Linda Hunter

Week 11 Summaries: Zeitlin (page 40) Vindication of the Rights of Woman · Mary Wollstonecraft’s main argument is that women deserve social equality with men and should be given the education necessary to achieve it · The woman who strengthens her body and develops her mind will become the friend, and not the humble dependent, of her husband · When Rousseau denies to woman the same rigorous physical and intellectual education for man, the effect is to perpetuate not a natural but an artificial inferiority · We need to remind ourselves that in Wollstonecraft’s time the “civil death” of women was written into law · Whatever property a woman owned before marriage or might receive thereafter became automatically her husbands McDonald (page 131-134) Jean-Antoine Caritat (marquis) de Condorcet (1743-1794) and Sophie Grouchy (marquise) de Condorcet (1764-1822) · Condorcet proposed a new system of education that would include the social sciences, but they were not accepted · He was a slow convert to republicanism, raising abstruse, legalistic objections to the trial of the king, and opposed capital punishment · In comparing men and women he argued for controls for education, to see how the advantages men had were not a product of nature but of social institutions · He advocated the establishment of a data bank, based on mortality statistics, with information on occupation and marital status added as it became available  · “Mathematique social”: implies that social science was but one branch of mathematics  · In his “Report on the General Organization of Public Instruction”, he included social science on the proposed curriculum § This would provide opportunities for the children of poorer citizens to develop their talents · Because of their functions in pregnancy and lactation, women were little adapted to going to war, but Condorcet believed other differences between the sexes to be the result of education · He argued that men’s rights arise solely from the fact that they are sensible beings, capable of moral ideas and reason. “Either everybody has rights or nobody does.” · He believed that with education to overcome their (women) present disabilities they could achieve as much as men  · He believed that people made their institutions and so could make them better  · He suggests the need for population control, and recommended a system of social insurance based on probability theory Course Reader (p. 30-37) Excerpt from “The Two Revolutions” Democracy as Revolution · The French Revolution was possessed of a suddenness and dramatic intensity that nothing in the Industrial Revolution could match · It did not commence the processes of centralization, equalitarianism, nationalist, collectivism, secularism, and bureaucracy that partisans on both sides first thought it had · Many sociologists, from Comte to Durkheim, gave the French Revolution a decisive role in the making of those social conditions with which they were immediately concerned · It was Comte that thought the “false dogmas” of the Revolution—equalitarianism, popular sovereignty, and individualism—that above even the new industrial system, were responsible for the spread of moral disorganization in Europe · Durkheim is still concerned with what he calls the Revolution’s replacement of “corporate egoism” by “individual egoism” · Otto von Gierke found in the Revolution’s destructive impact on such intermediate associations as monastery, guild and commune the principal inspiration of his monumental study of state and association in European history · Max Weber’s basic categories of authority—tradition and rational and charismatic—owe much to the Revolution and its impact on the old order  · Issues raised dramatically by the Revolution:  · Tradition vs. reason and law  · Religion vs. state  · The nature of property  · The relation of social classes  · Administration  · Centralization  · Nationalism  · “It was not until the French Revolution that democracy ceased to be
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