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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2112
Linda Hunter

SOAN 2112 after Midterm Notes th Monday February 25 , 2013 -guest lecture (Lynn McDonald) -collected works of Florence Nightingale -nightingale as a social scientist -First woman fellow, royal statistical society -pioneer methodologist -systems thinker -applied social science, especially for health care -the cause of the passionate statistician: to save lives -to this requires knowledge of “God’s laws” , the laws of nature -“God governs by His laws, but so do we when we have discovered them. If it were otherwise we could not learn from the past…” Nightingale’s Methodology -get the best info available -use government reports and statistics -read and interview experts -if the available info is inadequate collect your own: draw up a questionnaire (queries) -consult experts on it, practitioners who use it -test questions (pretest) before using -when writing up, consult experts (peer review) -practitioners who will actually use the data -for application, liaise with users -get criticism Application of research knowledge -laws govern society as well as natural world -L.A.J Quetelet (Belgian statistician) influence -Quetelet: “the creator of a new science in which observation and calculation are allied to bring out the immutable laws which govern phenomena apparently the most accidental of our physical life to our least actions.” Unintended consequences -the role of statistics: “consecrated blunders in medicine to prove the need of statistics.” -“statistics must be made otherwise than to prove a preconceived idea.” -Quetelet gave examples of infant mortality in foundling hospitals -you have to look at the results, not by intentions Quetelet on health data -“Different treatments *have but a+ small influence on the death rate.” -hospital death rates depend “on the way they are kept more than on the treatment employed.” -“administration saves more hospital patients than the best medical science.” (Comments on Physique Sociale) Knowledge for application -respect for the power of unintended results -new programs must be monitored statistically -statistics must be kept on a uniform basis so that comparisons can be made -“Hospital Statistics” paper given at the International Statistical Congress, 1860 The principles of workhouse reform -A. To insist on the great principle of separating the sick, insane, incurable and children from the usual pauper population of the metropolis -B. to advocate a general metropolitan rate for this purpose and a central administration -C. to leave the pauper and casual population and the rating for under the boards of guardians, as at present.” The ABC of reform -centralize all the sanitary powers… provide a scheme of suburban hospitals and asylums -1. For sick -2. For infirm, aged and invalids -3. For insane and imbeciles -4. Industrial schools for children -pay for them by a general school and hospital rate -Crimean War (1854-1856) -had a very high death rate, she worked as a nurse -British army death rate was 22% -U.S. Army death rate in Vietnam was 2.3% (this caused scandal and seemed to be so high but it wasn’t as nearly colossal as the Crimean war) -vast majority of the high death rates came from diseases from bad conditions in hospitals and camps -different charts of wedges showing the death rates and their causes -comparison of French and British mortality rates by year -big changes between French and British because the British made changes and the French did not (the British improved) -to compare results when “negelect of the laws of nature” and what may expect “from their observance” Army statistics needed -by regiment, by disease, then aggregate -immediate analysis of data: “the object being for the secretary state of war…..” Importance of the Census -Nightingale herself read Census material -took exracts (in 1853) from the 1841 Census (5:92……..) Why? -Death returns tell “who have died” -but death an imperfect standard of health -the “only real standard is how many people are well, how many ill, how many diseases” -sickness bears on “all questions of public health” -“in this way we should have a return of the whole sick and diseases in the UK for one spring day, which would give an average….” Housing -no adequate info as to “class of houses” in which people live: hovels, stables, cottages, flats, cellars, back to back houses, mansions -yet this is “the very foundation question of social statistics” and could be solved by the census with little extra work -nightingale a genius at data analysis and presentation -asking the right questions, finding the best data sources 0before the cause of the disease identified -no tests of statistical significance -her most brilliant charts combine cross sectional data -nightingale’s legacy in social science and statistics -knowledge for application, to save lives -argued for data collection and health data -data collection in hospitals is key to saving lives -you can compare hospitals to each other -workhouses are supposed to relieve distress but how much good did they really do? Nightingale’s methods -still needed? -an estimate 220 000 patients acquired infections in hospital -on social change, nightingale, the mainstream, liberal human agency -political economy school, the far right (Herbert Spencer) -Karl Marx, the far left -she is in between the two of them, she believes you can make good changes Wednesday February 27 , 2013 Max Weber (1864-1920) I Background II Socializing Science III Mind Over Money IV Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism V Bureaucracy VI Ideal Type VII Methodology of the Social Sciences VIII Class Status and Party IX Power, Domination, Authority X The Art of Politics – German Expressionism XI Summary I Background • inner tensions • (1905) Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism • in 1906, important studies on the political development in Russia • 1905 and 1909, major empirical work (study) in social psychology of industrial work and factory workers • in 1910 became the co-founder of the German Sociological Society with Toennies and Simmel • World War I • 1918 – Science as a Vocation • 1919 – Politics as a Vocation -had a breakdown after his father’s death -eventually resumed a full writing career -interested in factory workers, exploitation and alienation like Marx was -attacked the conduct of war and of German leadership -wrote a number of newspaper articles -one of the greatest social scientists of the century he wrote in -methodological works provide important framework for research -rationalization was central to his work and its consequences -unlike Mark and Durkheim, he projects a polar knight of icy darkness (pessimistic) -an “iron cage” he calls it, in which people are trapped Money for Nothing Documentary -only a few companies control all the music -consumers st Friday March 1 , 2013 II Socializing Science • Beginnings of psychology, sociology and anthropology are associated with Austrian psychologist Freud (1856-1939), the German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920), and French Sociologist and Anthropologist Emile Durkhiem (1858-1917) • formulated main principles behind the idea of ‘social science’ • hypothesis testing • experiments and research Marx – economic forces influence thinking and social organization Freud – psychological drives influence personality formation Weber – cultural belief influences economic organization Durkheim – culture is its own system, including psychological and economic factors • industrialization – sociological paradigms became more microscopic, individualistic and inductive • society is seen more from the individual’s perspective – as a set of values -micro vs macro analysis -some of them differ in their ideas -began to study people and realized people and society can be shaped in different ways -weber started studying people in terms of the micro perspective -our cultural beliefs influence our economic organization -culture can be understood based on the principles of the culture itself -cultural phenomena studied at the more micro level III Mind over Money • for Marx, infrastructure or substructure – “the relations of production” • superstructure includes the aspects of society that express beliefs • Weber saw connection between the rise of capitalism and Protestant religious thinking. People’s beliefs influence the way they set up their economy • a ‘rounding out’ and supplementing of Marx’s method • Economy and Society – religions of the East and West • Weber also obsessed with the origin and nature of modern capitalism -above infrastructure and substructure is superstructure -looked at religion and religious beliefs can affect the economy -peoples beliefs influence the way they set up their economy -some say this is opposite to Marx but it’s not -it’s a rounding out of his ideas not really oppositional (they’re kind of complimentary) -weber had a dialogue with Marx’s ghost IV Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905) • Weber wanted “to clarify the part which religious forces have played” • Protestant Reformation (16th Century movement resulting in separation of Protestant churches from Catholic churches) • Weber – the rise of mature capitalism was affected by the emergence of Protestant, especially Calvinistic ethics • modern or mature capitalism – pushed by another rising force, the religious ethic of Protestantism • Weber – interested in predestination, advanced by French theologian John Calvin in 16th century • work hard and lead thrifty lives • work ethic fostered the development of capitalism • “ideas” become effective forces in history • a “calling” • “success” • action grounded in Calvinist ethics directed the believers to behave in the spirit of mature capitalism • “good works” as individual – possible sign of being ‘chosen’ • Capitalism has become an ‘iron cage’ -what part religion did religion have in developing and forming capitalism? -predominantly protestant areas in Germany were wealthier -god knows ahead of time who’s going to heaven and hell and there’s nothing we can do but hope or worry -protestants: work hard for the glory of God -he noticed protestants were wealthier than Catholics -interested in the protestants relationship with god -they work hard -idea can become a successful force in history -god is inaccessible to the minds of people -look outside economics -recently we’ve recognized the rights of individuals -everyday people can have a relationship with god -shift in the capitalist state -capitalism has become money making instruments -wants us to recognize what we have become -he saw no progressive future -saw it was efficient to have a bureaucratic system -we’re trapped in the iron cage V Bureaucracy • Modern Reason – created an iron cage of bureaucratic rationality • for Weber, bureaucracy was becoming more and more characteristic of 20th century society • formal and technical rationality • administrative rules, organized according to rational principles – hierarchical order • only through this organizational device has large scale planning, for both the modern state and modern economy become possible • bureaus are arranged in a hierarchy – a system of superordinate and subordinate offices Weber 4 • lower have less authority than the higher • bureaucracy is efficient • speed, precision, cost reduction • modern warfare is a “war of machines” • “revolution” in the sense of transcending bureaucracy – creating a new, nonbureaucratic society was becoming more and more unlikely • depersonalization (Marx – alienation) • similarities to Marx’s notion of alienation • rationalized efficiency – “dehumanize” • “rationalized” vs. “consequence of capitalism” -no one knows who will live in this cage -bureaucracy is rationalize, heads of states can mobilize -discusses the roles of bureaucracy -he began to look at the individual in the work place -people are looked at as categories and not as people -highly specialized tasks are organized in a hierarchal order -depersonalization is a characteristic of bureaucracies which is dehumanizing -we are in a machinist culture, a war of machines -bureaucracy is a power instrument th Monday March 4 , 2013 VI Ideal Type Craib: the tool we use to understand social events and processes using interpretive understanding. Does not exist in reality (ideal type tool) • the most rational form of a bureaucracy that we can imagine • analytic construct – a measuring rod • method for a comparative study Levels of abstraction 1) ideal types rooted in historical particularities such as ‘Western City’ – specific historical periods 2) abstract elements of social reality – “bureaucracy” • helpful in doing empirical research • yard stick • historical reality • “nomothetic”, “idiographic” … ideal types should be neither too general nor too specific Hekman 1) Historical ideal types 2) General sociological ideal types (relate to phenomena that cross a number of different periods) 3) Action ideal types (based on the motivations) 4) Structural ideal types -provides a basis for a comparative study -introduced the micro perspective of understanding -ideal type day is not a perfect day in terms of perfection, it’s more about efficiency (a rainy day makes you get more work done) -a concept that’s constructed by a social scientists on the basis of his or her… -like a yard stick -nomothetic is general and idiographic is specific -the different types of ideal types are not too important VII Methodology of Social Science • Marx and Weber – the importance of history • comparative historical analysis – stability and change • 20th century – blossoming of ‘psychologically oriented sociology’ • Weber’s methodology shaped his research • empiricism, general laws, causal explanation, unity of natural and social sciences, ethical neutrality • causal analysis of historical phenomena • positivists / subjectivists • nomothetic thinker generalizes; idiographic focuses on specific events • general laws cannot explain historically specific social, political, or religious movements -work deals with values and judgments -importance of history for an understanding of society (marx and weber) -relevant even to the art of the time (blossoming) -Dream-like states -workers roles in their factories he studied -positivists are nomothetic and subjectivists are more idiographic -weber is interested in this relationship -rejected both extremes (micro and macro even though he was interested in micro) -he kind of combined the two -history is composed of unique empirical events -history is composed of many specific events -pg. 248 zeitlin Versetehen • ability to understand social phenomena • interpretive sociology • direct “rational understanding” (2x2=4 etc.) • understanding of “motive” • Weber rejected all notions of “collective personality” or collective conscience • Durkheim denied • we exercise choice, we deliberate, we calculate, we make decisions -versetehen means understanding -more concerned with the individual -marx is interested in changing the world for the better -weber realizes that rationalization is going to keep us in this same cycle -explanatory understanding (understanding of motive) -we can understand through empathy or sympathy etc. -Durkheim denied the notions of interpreting things from individual perspectives, he discussed more a collective conscious -weber insisted that this was the distinguishing feature of sociology and it could provide explanations -weber and Durkheim developed their ideas at different times -weber says we have choice and that society does not have power over us -founder of interpretive sociology Ideal Types of Social Action 1) Rational action – goal (means rational, ends identified) –identifying the mean and assessing the end rationally 2) Rational action – value (ends and means guided by value) - the action is rational because you remain faithful and your end is guided by value (honor) 3) Affective or emotional action – emotional state (ends and mean anchored on emotional state) –emotional state of mind (hockey player loses control in fight in hockey game) 4) Traditional action – conditioning (cultural traditions) – based on customs and tradition • Valuation, meaning, interpretation Values and Value Freedom 1) science is guided by values 2) we are valuing beings 3) history makes sense from standpoint of values 4) social scientists choose their reference to values • sociology involves choices of some values over and against other values Values and Research • place of values of social research is ambiguous • differentiation between knowledge of what is and knowledge of what ought to be • strive for objectivity • wertbeziehung (value relevance) and wetfreiheit (value freedom) pg. 252 zeitlin • objectivity is a goal -raises the issue of value -value is important to us and we live our lives through value -values are only sociologically relevant in a sophisticated way -value judgments cannot be separated by facts -you use your value judgments to select your subjects -don’t incorporate your values and biases in academic research or a paper -you cannot bring value judgments into a paper, you have to evaluate the research and evidence -academics have to express facts and not peoples opinion -is it realistic to eliminate your values for research? -there is a role for values in research -you need to have values in your research (what you choose to study), you just keep it out of your research and the actual analysis -marx and weber are complimentary in this -we have to consider our objectivity -scientific objectivity is an ideal -we should conduct our research as value free as possible -objectivity will never be fully met -science should be ethically neutral -scientists are not ethically neutral though -don’t let your values distort the research process and the way you conduct it -we can’t make judgments about moral ideas -weber wants to understand things and Marx wants to solve them Wednesday March 6 , 2013 VIII Class Status Party • “class, status groups and political parties…” are phenomena of the distribution of power Class – Weber defines “when (1) a number of people have in common a specific causal component of their life-chances insofar as (2) this component is represented exclusively by economic interests in the possession of goods and opportunities for income, and (3) is represented under the conditions of the commodity or labour markets” • Any group of people found in the same class situation • Weber classified people based on their consumption patterns rather than just their place in the market or in the process of production Status – Weber defines status “every typical component of the life of men that is determined by a specific positive or negative social estimation of honor” Status is related to style of life • status relates to consumption of goods produced, while class relates to economic production • prestige may rest on size and source of their income, their political positions, education, training, or social characteristics • social esteem and honour accorded them by others Status group – a membership category • people can rank high on one or two of these dimensions of stratification or low in the other • a more sophisticated analysis of social structure and stratification than when stratification is reduced to variations in one’s economic situation Party – can be found in the political order. To Weber, parties “are always structures struggling for domination” • those that exist in the state or a social club Power – the ability to realize one’s will despite and against the resistance of others • Weber argued that the concentration of power was not confined to the economic sphere • Weber elaborates on Marx’s theory arguing that control of the means of political administration, violence, scientific research etc. are also major means of dominanting men • the process of rationalization determines everything Does class limit social mobility? Marx and Weber’s ideas • ideas and discussion in class -interested in other means of production (prestige, honour, status, party—not just class) -class is not a community -thought Marx had overlooked the relevance of the categories because of his attention on production spheres -status is related to lifestyle or style of life -income, prestige and social honour as well as class that contributes to society -in any given class there will be many status groups -look at status and party along with class to understand peoples lifestyles and life -ritz says they can rank high on one category and low on another (class and status) -parties are the most organized elements -they include those that exist in the state and social clubs -who controls the means of production? Weber elaborates on Marx’s view -who controls scientific research and what is granted money for research says a lot about who is in power -this is all part of dominating men -rationalization and bureaucracy control everything and leads to power -because of these factors he believes some groups may have high status positions but may not have a lot of power ex. aristocratic women and others may have power but lack status -charismatic authority -male domination limits female opportunities in many ways -offers an alternative to Marx’s view -the ruling class always control economic and political power in capitalist society (Marx) -weber distinguishes these three avenues -share similar views about the economic class but the political significance of economic power is more problematic for Weber -those who are wealthy don’t always have high status (criminals) -weber saw this iron cage and says it has to be shattered but doesn’t think it can be shattered -a charismatic leader would be good IX Power, Domination, Authority • ideal typifications – charismatic, traditional, and legal-rational • after WWI Weber was interested in understanding and helping power in Germany – Germany needed leaders of quality -Germany needed help he thought Legitimacy: • the legitimacy of Authority is determined by its form, and ultimately by society – a particular form of Authority creates or maintains its own legitimacy within a society • bound by tradition and/or rational/legal structure, what is considered legitimate is always changing -legitimacy is the characteristic that made authority and important social function -we want to understand the leadership role and how it relates to society Authority: • a socially constructed position a person enters into when they assume power over a population • when rulers attempt to exert control beyond the realm of their authority, they are met with disapproval -when we elect a new Prime Minister they promise us stuff but they never follow through Leadership: • a personal quality as opposed to an inherited quality • something you earn rather than something you are given -not something you walk into -inspire those who are underneath you -authority is granted and leadership is earned but they go hand in hand Traditional Authority • pure form – domination of the father over the household. Women dependent; children helpless • the ruler’s domination of a large area enables him to carry out his own trade and to control and profit from that of others • authority which is granted by the traditions, religion, and beliefs of society • Examples: Monarchies, Tribes • the strength of their leadership depends on how far social tradition extends -a person ruling a group or society through divine right -traditional approach -distinction between leadership and authority Rational/Legal Authority • more inherently stable form of authority; inherent with bureaucracy • legal and administrative order. Can use force if legally prescribed or permitted • authority created to address the needs of the infrastructure of society • Examples: Politicians, police officers, judges • persons enter into pre-established roles of Authority with the expectation that they will govern and maintain social order in the field that they specialize in • Bureaucracy – most typical organizational form of legal-rational 1) official functions 2) sphere of competence 3) principle of hierarchy 4) technical rules 5) administrative staff separated from ownership 6) administrative acts, decisions and rules – recorded in writing -obedience is owed to previously established rules -salaries are provided -it is deemed rational -rationalization is parallel with bureaucracy for Weber -increase in specialization -they have to view their positions as a profession rather than as a calling Charasmatic Authority • can arise at times of crisis or trouble • the Charismatic Leader brings passion to their office and uses their personal flair to increase their authority Examples: Pierrie Trudeau vs. Jean Chretian John F. Kennedy vs. Richard Nixon Prince Charles vs. Prince William • a collective enthusiasm which sees this person as a solution to the troubles that plague them • Weber believed these leaders could provide meaning in the bureaucratic system -could deliver validity to bureaucracy -he criticized bureaucracy but thought it was necessary for society to progress -Chretian did not achieve the same level of admiration as Trudeau -charisma can be used as a tool for authority leader -charisma during WW2—Hitler, not so good charisma -clip from the Office -he tries to take charge and have all the power? -they go on a cruise th Friday March 8 , 2013 X The Art of Politics – German Expressionism • avant garde movement produces art that embodies the experience of modern urban life • Fauvism Æ Gauguin, Matisse • Cubism Æ Picasso • Die Bruker Æ Marc, Kirchner, Kandinsky, Klee, Grosz, Beckmann, Dix -stradinsky’s rights of spring? String? -emotion more important than motion in the romantic time period -reason in the enlightenment -motion in the German expressionism -there was still work about death -romantics glorified subjective awareness, imagination, feeling etc. -in the early 1900s there was a reaction to romanticism -they wanted to throw this away -they went from love to expression and politics -they turned away from this spirit and the subjective -this new attitude took place around WW1 -rhythmic music, they turned to African culture -man had surrendered his soul -symbol of the dehumanization of society under the influence of non-Western music (machine music) -emotion to motion -the emotion was sterner and more expressive now instead -melody turned to rhythm -rhythm and motion instead of the element of feeling was important -the right of spring caused a riot when it was performed because they felt it was crazy -he wrote about the revolution in the right of spring -culture isn’t just about theory -public images of photography -weber is writing about rationalism and freud was doing work on dreams at the time -expressionism is inherently intense and looks more at the darker, grotesque side -artists were seeking new ways of art and architecture -Paul Gauguin, nous ou allons-nous (1898) trying to represent innocence in the primitive form? -emst Kirchner-nudes playing under tree (1913) russian dancers (1909), women at the mirror (1912), street, Dresden (1908), street, berlin (1913), five women in the street (1913) -these women look down on other people, they are elite people -they seem very materialistic, very angular (pointy) and brittle, degrading the lower class, demonstrates isolation -they have community but they’re not interacting with one another and they seem isolated -kandinsky: theres complicated, weird, hard to understand drawings -he says colour is the keyboard and the soul is the piano, there’s vibrations in the soul -paul klee, twittering machine (1922)- the bird is a singing bird but it looks like its drowning or gasping -the machine age is being mocked here -you can almost hear the birds choking made by this strange device—the twittering machine -the sign is like a trigger for people he says -Marc Franz, the dream (1912) -George Grosz—nobody cares about these people, some provocative images -he has a lot of work that looks at people as puppets, he’s bitter -o dix—brutal images such as dying soldiers Monday March 8 , 2013 -skipped XI Summary • historical research and sociological theorizing • verstehen • causality, ideal types • social action • structures of authority – legal, traditional, and charismatic • ideal type bureaucracy • rationalization • search for general laws, causal relations • ethical neutrality • what ‘is’ not ‘what ought to be’ • Craib “The iron cage is a liberal nightmare, not a liberal vision” • Weber ambivalent in his attitude to modernity and the process of disenchantment that is involved Marx, Durkheim, Weber: • lived in a time in society that was undergoing profound social changes • were concerned about the character and direction of modern society • multifaceted lens through which to view contemporary society • Marx was involved in newspaper, Weber in political activities, Durkheim encouraged scientists to become socially involved. All examined forces that help to weave parts of society together and all identified elements that drive us apart • industrial society Comparing Marx and Weber – Bureaucracy and Alienation • Marx and The Communist Manifesto challenged capitalism • For Marx, the machinery of capitalism had crushed the self-sustaining individual and family • For Marx , one’s position in society was relative to class but for Weber one’s position was relative to class, status and party (power) • Marx believed that the owners of the means of production held power in society but Weber believed that the owners of the means of public administration also held an enormous amount of influence over individuals • Marx believed that alienation took place due to the capitalist nature of work – alienated from process of production, his product, from himself and from others • Weber believed alienation resulted from the “impersonal, rule based environment” of the bureaucratic environment; “specialist without soul, sensualist without heart” and for Weber it was necessary to the proper functioning of the bureaucratic machine • Bureaucracy for both Marx and Weber were inevitable but while Marx thought bureaucracy could disappear along with capitalism, Weber thought a society without bureaucracy was unlikely as it was rational and efficient NOTE: • Painting Between The Wars – Just for your interest (not to be tested on) The Founders Expressionism Picasso Kollwitz Matisse Grosz Kirchner Beckmann Kandinsky Dove Orozco Abstraction Realism Léger Dix Demuth O’Keefe Stella Mondrian Nicholson Fantasy American Scene Dada Hopper Enst Lawrence Surrealism Dali Magritte Kahlo Miro Klee TWENTIETH CENTURY PAINTING – for interest (not to be tested on) PAINTING BEFORE WWI Expressionism Fantasy The Fauves de Chirico Matisse Chagall Duchamp German Expressionism Die Brűcke Nolde Kandinsky Marc Abstraction Realism Picasso The Ash Can School Analytic Cubism Bellows Synthetic Cubism The Armory Show Orphism Futurism Cubofuturism Suprematism th Wednesday March 13 , 2013 -the corporation Friday March 15 , 2013 -TA Drop in day Monday March 18 , 2013 -skipped Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) I Background II The Works a) Social Facts b) The Rules of Sociological Method – 1895 c) The Normal and the Pathological d) The Division of Labour – 1893 e) Suicide – 1897 III The Art of Politics IV Summary and Conclusions V Comparing and Contrasting Marx, Durkheim and Weber I Background • born in the French town Epinal • lived during the Franco-Prussian War (1870’s) • educated in Paris- trained in philosophy and history • read Comte and Spencer • received a faculty appointment at the University of Bordeaux • “Dreyfus Affair” (1894) • essay “Individualism and the Intellectuals” Intellectual Roots • Influenced by the work of Montesquieu, Rousseau, Kant, Saint-Simon, Comte and Spencer • the goal of sociology was to develop social laws – allow for creation of a morally unified industrial social order • Durkheim saw modern society as being in a state of “crisis”- based on three major phenomena in French society 1 - defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian war (1870) 2 - repeated political crises 3 – repeated economic and industrial conflicts and problems (e.g. Rapid Industrialization) Synthesized elements from two opposing schools of thought: 1 - French Enlightenment (Rousseau, Voltaire, Diderot) - individualism, democracy, individual liberties, scientific rationality 2 - Anti-Enlightenment Reaction - social institutions, individuals need for support and control Contributions and Publications • published more than 500 articles, books, and reviews Division of Labor in Society (1893) The Rules of Sociological Method (1895) Suicide (1897) Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1912) • investigated the nature of social order, social change, suicide, sociological methodology, sociology of education, sociology of knowledge, sociology of morality, and the sociology of religion • field of sociology was a “moral calling” Evolutionary approach • transition from a simple or primitive society to a more complex industrial society • Society is “sui generis” • society is not a static organization of human activity but is an organization that is constantly in a natural process of change and development through a series of sequential or evolutionary types or stages Society for Durkheim, is an entity sui generis –one that could be studied in itself without reducing it to individuals and their motivations. Society is more than the individuals who constitute it. Durkheim uses Crime / Punishment as empirical indicators to demonstrate “collective conscience” II The Works a) Social Facts • properties of “culture” involves shared beliefs, values, sentiments, and ways of thinking and understanding • society itself forms a reality in and of itself • “sui generis” – cannot be reduced to biological or psychological explanations • Society’s Big Mind (Stevenson) • a social fact exists in its own right Patterns and Purposes Functionalism - all features of society serve a social purpose or purposes Structuralism - thought, language, and culture take a recognizable shape when all the different elements are seen in relation to one another • Claude Levi Strauss • functionalism focuses on the social purpose of social facts, whereas structuralism focuses on logical relationships among them (thought, language) • “social facts” are: - the subject matter - distinctive social characteristics - external to any particular individual - endure over time - endowed with coercive power • constraint was a collective thing – the so called collective conscience – in primitive societies unity is based on common collective sentiments b) The Rules of Sociological Method • scientific method based on logic and facts • the meth
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