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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2112
Linda Hunter

Saint Simon  During a time od nationalism and social movements  “The social question” was asked in order to promote social change  Wanted to control own destiny – meritocracy  form od government where assignment is based on achievement, leadership and abilities  New and organic society based on new principals  Founder of socialism  Human knowledge passes through 3 stages – theology, metaphysical, and scientific  Physical and social behaviour must be studied scientifically  Science must replace church elite  Conservative - wanted to preserve society as it was but realized they couldn’t go back SO radical side – wanted social reforms  Functionalism – study society as an interconnected system of parts o Machine analogy  Objects and things as separate parts  War always a part of human nature o Organic analogy  Compared to human body – one function of society stops, so do the other parts  Every aspect of society has its own important function Comte  Ecole Polytechnique  Ceased believing in God at 14 then claims religion holds society together  Comte in love was a Comte transformed  Organic paradigm o Society based on needs with interrelated parts through division of labor o The heart is the government o The structure and function of society can be analogized to the structure and functioning of a living biological entity  Synthesis of opposing ideas  Rise of science!  Formation of social order  Order and dynamic studied together o Order – static – refers to harmony o Dynamics – progress – refers to the study of patterns of evolutionary progress  Law of Three Stages o Theological – (priests) – will of gods, daemon’s, spirits and supernatural beings (before 1300) to explain phenomenon  Sun god makes the sun go down  Theological  priests  military  family kinship o Metaphysical – questioning and speculating with abstract ideas (1300-1800)  World is round and sun god helps it to go around the earth  Metaphysical  transitional  state o Positive/scientific  Observable scientific relationships (1800+)  Positive  industrial  human race  From science comes prevision and from prevision comes actions  Development of truth through o Observation of facts o Experimentation o Comparison Harriet Martineau  Quest for human improvement  Women were being left tout of historic works  Preferred and admired democracy  First English journalist to write under her own name  “The positive philosophy”  Notebook – travelled interviewing people  The observed and the observer – empathetic  Without sympathy, the most important things would be hidden  Laissez faire liberal (private interactions are free from state interference)  Principles of universal justice were blatantly contradicted by the institution of slavery o Questioning the authenticity of government  Struggle between aristocracy and democracy  Men are created equal: division of labor contradicts this  Concept of slavery  INJUST  People use power for own selfish reasons  Work acquired moral significance in the north and work and labor had been stigmatized among the whites of slave states  in the north…  Women, children and slaves were denied full citizenship o Women excluded because represented by fathers and husbands  Might is right Alexis de Tocqueville  Studied America to provide guidelines for France  Inequality of human races o The Place of Boss: FILM  First person testimonies of elders and community  Priest  blessed – brought food and brought them together  Inuit’s have deep belief in spirits  1950: first missionary permanently settled in community  father Obrien  Stopped them from drum dance  Took away culture  Priest spoke of god and people began losing their spirituality  Culture cant be taught – children no longer speak old language o Roots - FILM  Degradation of black people  Bla
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