The Overall Doctrine-Balance between forces to initiate social change through tension and
struggle. Struggle, not peaceful growth, is what pushes change.
-The first historical act is the production of material life. Production of materials is used to meet
the constant production of new needs we develop when out primary needs are met. We are
perpetually dissatisfied animals.
-After a communal stage there will be a division of labour which gives rise to classes. Different
historical periods have been marked by class struggle.
Hegels-Thesis, antithesis and Synthesis. We are the seeds of our own destruction. What is is
always to be challenged for us to interpret inside the system. Capitalist society is challenged by
capitalism and may give rise to socialism.
Dialectical Materialism-Conflict is important, capitalism rests on this conflict and class.
-A dialectical interplay between opposing classes interests bring about historical change. Thesis
is the event; antithesis is the opposite and synthesis is the reconciliation.
-Nature is in constant flux, Matter over mind is Marxs idea which is opposite to Hegels
ideology. Economics determines ideas. Reality is not spiritual but material.
Economic Determinism-Economic subculture shapes the whole superstructure, Your existence
determines how you think. Economics may be important but in some societies things like kinship
is more important.
-Mans class is ascribed at birth and his mode of behaviour is already determined. Dominant
class rules because the rulers are made by the controlling class and then this class has all mental
-Cultural life of man is an effect of his material and economic activity. Is culture based on the
consciousness of humans or is the consciousness of humans based on culture and economy?
-Marx proposes society is splitting into 2 hostile groups and the media pushes this splitting ad
reinforces behaviours of the dominant culture.
-An oppressed group attempts to improve themselves through society. Bourgeois are kept and
show through society and the ruling class. Proletariat are the oppressed and trying to better
Historical Materialism-Every system has an affirmation (thesis) but this blocks new technology
to that society. The order entrenched has to be overcome (antithesis) to create a new system
(synthesis). Each generation must exploit the Capitalist mode of production to help the revolt.
-Conflict is key because there is always the oppressed.
-Technological determinism is comprised of productive forces (How does society create its
means for survival? Technology?) and relations of production (Who owns the means of
-labour is organized and allows a certain division based on the means of production.
Tribalism-Women raise children while men hunt and fish. Economics is an extension of the
family. There is no private property.
Communalism-Began private property. Stress of growth from tribe to state begins the division of
Feudalism-Nobility controls the serfs and has power. Development of towns creates renewed
oppression of peasants. Method of production are stable but give way to an exchange society
because of surplus. Economic base was destroyed. Use value now becomes exchange value.
-Rise in the development of bourgeois and proletariat and thus capitalism. Capitalism-labour is chief commodity. Capitalism is composed of labourers who sell their labour
and owners who buy labour. Labourers are forced to be a cog in a machine and are alienated
from themselves, others, actual product and own creativity.
-What the labourer loses in creativity the organization gains in efficiency.
Revolt-Caused by alienation and degradation. Organization of proletariat.
Socialism-Classless society, no private property. Reunion of individual and nature. More
community based, back to the essence of creativity. The proletariat have only their chains to lose.
Alienation-Private property and alienation are linked. Material production consists of 3
components: conditions, forces and relations of production. Private property is the result of all
conflict. Division of labour ensues. History is the increasing control of man over nature and the
increasing history of the alienation of man.
-Vital part of the history of capitalism and communism is the solution. Workers are the most
alienated because they lose themselves and creativity. Capitalism stretches alienated to its limits.
-alienation is the breakdown of the interconnectedness necessary for human life.
Class Theory-All societies exist with class struggle because classes clash. Factory is the focus of
the clash, central component is how people are shaped by the means of production.
-A class in itself can be a class of itself; common struggles rises to social network and gives them
consciousness of their faith which can then be shown to others to cause change.
-Lumpen proletariat do not sell their labour, may be criminals or homeless.
-Working class was bound to develop class consciousness once appropriate conditions were
present. Bourgeois could not develop consciousness but the rational acts to deepen their self-
interests help them give rise to revolution.
Class Consciousness-Proletariat will develop an accurate conception of how capitalism works
and affects them.
False Consciousness-Problems of society are focused on the individual not the structure of
society. Marx disagrees. Poverty and unemployment are not inevitable but just some areas of
ways people can go. False consciousness ignores societal influences. False consciousness
describes the situation throughout the capitalist epoch.
The Communist Manifesto-Exploitation that is open, unashamed, direct and brutal.
-Replaced open exploitation, class conflict is central to society
-Discusses ideology to remove capitalist society. Worker class and society will be the change to
people. Private ownership of property/production will keep generations of class conflict until the
clash arises and there is a revolution.
-The emancipation of the working class must be the act of the working class itself. Evolution is
through class conflict. Study of human politics.
-Workers of the world unite, the point is to change the world.
-Studies thought control in democratic society. He is considered the most important intellectual
alive. He believes the media is used by the government to control the thoughts of people in a
democratic society. He believes that challenging the legitimacy of authority should be constantly
done but some societies need the justification of an authority.
-Democracy requires freedom of speech. The contrary view is that everyone should be
marginalized and controlled obviously for their own good.
-A revolution in the practice of democracy. Opposite view is the man is stupid and follows blind
faith and thus should be concealed for their own good by the myth maker. Alluded over and over the government can control everything you do and when this no longer exists then the
government uses necessary illusions to control the thought of the people which indirectly
controls their actions.
-Whose consent is being manufactured? Political class; educated articulate, opinionated, play a
role in how things run 20%. The other 80% is supposed to follow the rules and go along. It is
vital the 20% is manufactured consent but the 80% usually suffers.
-New york times is very important to the 20% as it changes and shapes history through their
reporting/ archival data.
-Has he himself escaped the ideologically thing imprinted through the media? Unfortunately he
feels that he has been imprinted and it is basically unavoidable.
Waking Life-Suddenly wants to talk in depth about communication to a random stranger.
Doesnt want to be an ant who just goes through society for survival. Wants real human
What is justice?-Aristotle believed a society gives merit as measured by a persons talent, effort
etc even if some get more than others but it is needed that people need the basic things for human
life. Basically some type of neutralized class.
-Marx and Engels took this on; every society is divided into unequal classes and this will change
when labourers take over the means of production and destroy the class system. The proletariat
will revolt and create a new system.
-everyone should contribute what they can to society.
-Rawls!!--Questions wouldnt people naturally want moral rules that apply/help everyone simply
to protect themselves. Since we divide so much we should put aside and focus on justice we can
agree on. Idea that surplus should be used to effectively reduce/eliminate poverty.
The origin of family, private property and the state-Production of the means of existence and
the production of human beings.
-Economic construction of society connected to the form and the content of the family.
-Took a historical approach to family from parenting in the 1970s. This kick started sociology of
the family which didnt exist before Engels.
-Greatly influenced by the anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan who studied native people
Consanguine Family-Only parents and children are prescribed marriage partners.
Palauan family-Excluded parents and children and brothers and sisters from intercourse
Pairing Family-Women were well respected, were the head of the household and could kick men
out. This is an unstable form of household. Up to a certain stage family depends on clothes, food
and shelter. Advancing pastoral people acquired property which needed supervision and care but
the property belonged to everyone. Mens responsibility is to provide food and thus has the tools
and the means of production and owned the herds. Women owned the tools of the household and
children inherited from the women.
Monogamous family-emerges from the pairing family because of the growing importance of
mens role in the economy. Monogamy provides absolute paternity for men and the victory of