Study Guides (251,862)
CA (122,943)
U of G (7,200)
SOAN (194)
SOAN 2120 (93)

Midterm 2 Notes.docx

12 Pages

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2120
David Walters

This preview shows pages 1-2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 12 pages of the document.
Survey Research - the survey asks respondents about their beliefs, opinions, characteristics, and past or present behaviour – often called correlational - researchers usually ask about many things at home time, measure many variables and test several hypotheses in a single survey - the following can be asked in a survey: o behaviour o attitudes/beliefs/opinions o characteristics o expectations o self-classification (what do you consider yourself… i.e. liberal) o knowledge - limitation o it provides data only of what a person says, and this may differ from what he or she actually does Steps in the Process of Survey Research Step One: - develop hypotheses - decide on type of survey - write survey questions - decide on response categories - design layout Step Two: - plan how to record data - test survey instrument Step Three: - decide on target population - get sampling frame - decide on sampling size - select sample Step Four: - Locate respondents - Conduct interviews - Carefully record data Step Five: - enter data into computers - recheck all data - perform statistical analysis on data Step Six: - describe methods and findings in research report - present findings to others for critique and evaluation Principles of Good Question Writing - keep it clear, keep it simple, keep the respondent’s perspective in mind - 12 things to avoid when writing survey questions o jargon, slang, abbreviations o vagueness o emotional language o prestige bias o double-barreled questions o beliefs as real o leading questions o issues beyond respondent capabilities o false premises o distant future intentions o double negatives o unbalanced responses Types of Questions and Response Categories Threatening Questions - researchers must ask with extreme care - these questions are part of self-presentation and ego protection - respondents may underreport or self-censor reports or behaviour that they believe are a violation of social norms - masturbation is considered ‘very uneasy’ while sports activity is the ‘least uneasy’ Socially Desirable Questions - social desirability bias occurs when respondents distort answers to make their reports conform to social norms Knowledge Questions - many have inaccurate factual knowledge Skip or Contingency Questions - avoid asking questions that are irrelevant for a respondent - contingency question: two-or more part question - contingency questions select respondents for whom a second question is relevant Open Versus Closed Questions - open-ended question: asks a question to which a respondent can give any answer - closed-ended question: both asks a question and gives the respondent fixed responses from which to choose (i.e. good, very good, poor, very poor) o large scale surveys have closed-ended questions because they are quicker and easier for respondents and researchers - Advantages and Disadvantages Open Closed Pros - unlimited number of - easier and quicker for answers respondents to answer - respondents can answer in - easier to compare detail - easy to code and analyze - reveal a person’s logic Cons - different degrees of detail - respondents with no opinion - responses may be can answer anyways irrelevant - respondents may get - coding responses is difficult frustration - misinterpretation of question can go unnoticed - Nonattitudes and Middle Positions o Two types of errors can be made:  Accepting a middle choice or ‘no attitude’ respondent when responds hold a nonnetrual opinion  Forcing respondents to choose a position on an issue when they have no opinion about it o 3 Kinds of Attitude Questions  Standard Format  Does not offer a ‘don’t know’ response – agree or disagree  Quasi-Filter  Offers a ‘don’t know’ response  Full filter  Asks if they have an opinion – if yes, explain - Agree/Disagree, Rankings or Ratings o Less well-educated respondents are more likely to agree with a statement, whereas forced-choice alternatives encourage thought and avoid the response set bias o Better to ask respondents to choose among alternatives by ranking instead of rating - use a funnel sequence o ask more general questions before specific questions Types of Surveys: Disadvantages and Advantages Pros Cons Mail and Self - can give questions - low response rate Administered directly to - trickle in up to two respondents month later - cheapest - cannot control - conducted by a conditions single researcher - cannot clarify - offer anonymity questions - avoid researcher - incomplete bias questionnaires Web Surveys - very fast - coverage - inexpensive - privacy - flexible design - verification - design issues Telephone Interviews - 95% of population - higher cost can be reached - respondents - flexible method without phones - control of sequence - reduces anonymity - can use probes - potential interview bias Face-To-Face Interviews - high response rates - high cost - observe surrounds - interviewer bias - can ask all types of - appearance, tone of q’s voice, wording, etc. 10 Ways to Increase Mail Questionnaire Response - address the questionnaire - date cover letter - postage paid, address return envelope - attractive layout - easy to read - follow-up reminder letters - do not send during holidays - do not put questions on back of page - sponsors that are local are legitimate - small monetary inducement Experimental Research - best for issues that have a narrow scope or scale - limits one ability to generalize to larger settings Random Assignment - random assignment is a method for assigning cases to groups for the purpose of making comparisons. o It is a way to divide or sort a collection of cases into two or more groups in order to increase one’s confidence that the groups do not differ in a systematic way - We can use tests of statistical significance Why Randomly Assign? - Random assignment or randomization is unbiased because a researcher’s desire to confirm a hypothesis or a research subject’s personal interests do not enter into the selection process o Unbiased does not mean that groups with identical characteristics are selected in each specific situation of random assignment – it is that the probability of selecting a case can be mathematically determined, and the groups will be identical in the long run How to Randomly Assign - begin with a collection of cases - divide it into two or more groups by a random process (eg. flipping a coin) - assign ‘heads’ to the control group and ‘tails’ to the experiment group Types of Design - Classical Experimental Design o All designs are variations of this o Random assignment, pretest, posttest, experimental group, control group - Preexperimental Design o Used in situations where it is difficult to use the classical design o no random assignment - One-shot Case Study Design o One group, a treatment, post-test o No random assignment - One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design o One group, pretest, treatment, posttest o No random assignment o No control group - Static Group Comparison o Two groups, posttest, treatment In other words – Types of Design continued… Design Random Pretest Posttest Control Experimental Assignment Classical Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes One-Shot No No Yes No Yes Case Study One- No Yes Yes No Yes Group Pretest Posttest Static No No Yes Yes Yes Group Two- Yes No Yes Yes Yes Group Posttest Time- No Yes Yes No Yes series Quasi-Experimental and Special Designs - help researchers test for causal relationships in a variety of situations where the classical design is difficult or inappropriate
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only pages 1-2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.