Study Guides (238,242)
Canada (115,037)
SOAN 2120 (89)
D Walters (37)

SOAN 2120 Final: SOAN 2120 final exam notes

19 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
D Walters

Final Exam Chapter Reading Breakdown SOAN 2120 Quantitative Methods Measures of Variation Range—subtract lowest number from highest Percentile—tells the score at a specific place within the distribution (Median is the 50h percentile) Standard Deviation— a measure of dispersion for one variable that indicates an average distance between the scores and the mean Bi-variate Table - let a researcher consider two variables together and describe the relationship between them - Statistical Relationships are based on two ideas: Covariation and Independence Covariation—things go together and are associated Independence—opposite of covariation. It means there is no association or no relationship between variables Three Techniques help researchers decide whether there is a relationship between to variables 1. Scattergram or a graph or plot of the relationship 2. Cross Turbulation or a percentage table 3. Measures of Association, or statistical measures that express the amount of covariant by a single number (correlation co efficient ) Scattergram - researcher plots each case, where each axis represents the value of one variable - used for variables measured at the interval or ratio level, rarely for ordinal variables and never if either value is nominal - a researcher can see three aspects of a bi-variate relationship in a scattergram 1. Form 2. Direction 3. Precision Elaboration Paradigm - a system for reading percentaged trivariate tables - 5 Patterns 1. Replication Pattern—when particles replicate or reproduce the same relationship that existed in the table before considering the control variable 2. Specification Pattern—occurs when one partial replicates the initial bi-variate relationship but others do not 3. Interpretation Pattern—when the control variable intervenes between the original independent and dependent variables 4. Explanation Pattern—control variable comes before the independent variable in the initial bi- variate relationship 5. Suppressor Variable Pattern – occurs when the bi-variate table suggest independence but a relationship appears in one or both of the partials Statistical Control 208 - showing a relationship between two variables is not sufficient enough to say that an independent variable causes a dependent variable - a researcher must eliminate alternative explanations—explanations that can make the hypothesized relationship spurious - control by choosing a research design that physically controls potential alternative explanations for results (that threaten internal validity) - in non experimental research, a researcher controls for alternative explanations with statistics - measure possible alternative explanations with control variables, then examines the control variables with multivariate tables and statistics that help them decide whether a bi-variate relationship is spurious - a researcher controls for alternative explanations in multivariate analysis by introducing a third or sometimes fourth variable - statistical control is a key idea in advanced statistical techniques - a measure of association like the correlation co-efficient only suggests a relationship - until a researcher considers control variables, the bi-variate relationship could be spurious Association 208 - measure of association is a single number that expresses the strength, and often the direction of a relationship - condenses the information about a bivariate relationship into a single number - many measures of association and they are called by letters of the Greek alphabet (lambda, gamma, tau, chi-squared and rho) 1. Lambda - used for nominal-level data - based on a reduction in errors based on the mode and ranges between 0 (independence) and 1.0 (strongest possible relationship) 2. Gama - used for ordinal level data - comparing pairs of variable categories and seeing whether a case has the same rank on each - ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 with 0 meaning no association 3. Tau (Kendall’s Tau) - used for ordinal level data - takes care of problems that can occur in gamma - ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 with 0 meaning no association 4. Rho (correlation coefficient) - most commonly used measure of correlation - used for mean and standard deviation of the variables and indicates how far cases are from a relationship - ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 with 0 meaning no association - measures linear relationships 5. Chi-squared - can be used as a measure of association in descriptive statistics, or in inferential statistics - can be used for nominal and ordinal data - has an upper limit of infinity and a lower limit of zero, meaning no association Field Research Strategy for Entering Planning - Entering and gaining access depends on common sense judgement and social skills - Often there are many levels of entry, analogous to the layers of an onion with different issues at each level - Best to avoid being locked into specifics because the research process often changes and to have a fallback plan Negotiation Social relations are negotiated and formed throughout research - Occurs w/ each new member until a stable relationship develops - Researcher expects to negotiate and explain what they are doing over and over - Special negotiation (such as offering a service) required to gain access Disclosure Researcher decides how much to disclose about their personal life and about the research project - Disclosing one’s personal life is good for establishing a relationship but the researcher loses privacy and needs to ensure focus remains on the project - Research can be covert (no one knows research is being conducted) or everyone can know that it is being conducted – generally a researcher discloses the project unless there is a good reason not to Learning the Ropes - Researcher must learn the ropes after access is obtained and establish rapport Presentation of Self - People explicitly and implicitly express themselves to others - We display who we are through our physical appearance, what we say and how we act - A researcher is conscious of how they present themselves in the field and the best guide of how to dress is to both respect oneself and those being studied as self-presentation will influence field relations to some degree Researcher as Instrument - Instrument for measuring field data Two implications: 1. Pressures the researcher to be alert and sensitive to what happens in the field and to be disciplined about recording data 2. Personal consequences as it involves social relationships and personal feelings - Field researchers are subjective and include their feelings toward field events as data An Attitude of Strangeness - Hard to recognize what we are very close to and we fail to see the familiar as distinctive, thus we think others experience reality just as we do - Researchers encounter very different assumptions about what is important and how things are done (culture shock) - This makes it easier to see cultural elements and facilitates self-discovery - Attitude of strangeness: questioning and noticing ordinary details or looking at the ordinary through the eyes of a stranger - Helps the researcher see the ordinary in a new way - Encourages them to reconsider their own social world Building Rapport - Build rapport by getting along with others in the field so that they can move beyond understanding members to empathy (seeing and feeling events from another’s perspective) - Not always possible to build rapport (unpleasant members, fear, conflict, etc.) and these settings require different techniques - Charm and Trust - Researcher needs social skills and charm to facilitate communication to understand member’s inner feelings - Showing a genuine concern, honesty and sharing feelings are good strategies to becoming well liked - Many factors affect trust/rapport and trust is developed over time through social nuances - Trust does not guarantee that all information will be revealed Understanding - Once the researcher obtains understanding of the member’s point of view, the next step is to learn to think and act within a member’s perspective (empathy) which leads to greater understanding Roles in the Field Preexisting vs. Created Roles - Sometimes a researcher adopts an existing role (some provide access to all areas of the site) and creates roles or modifies roles at other times Limits on the Role Chosen - Roles open to a researcher are affected by ascriptive factors and physical appearance - You can change some aspects of appearance but not ascriptive (such as sex) - Women in a male dominated or dangerous field are often shunned or pushed into limiting gender stereotypes - Marginalization + desire to develop rapport = over involvement and the researcher may become one of the group being studied Normalizing Social Research - Researchers are observed and investigated by members who are uncomfortable w/ them initially - Normalizing social research: help members redefine social research from something unknown and threatening to something normal and predictable Observing and Collecting Data Field data are what the researcher experiences and remembers and what are recorded in field notes Observing - Pay attention, watch and listen carefully using all the senses - Important to scrutinize the physical setting because subtle, unconscious signals influence human behaviour - Field researchers pay CLOSE attention to detail, as they believe the core of social life is communicated through trivial, mundane things which are often overlooked - People and their actions are observed and physical characteristics are noted (people interact differently based on these characteristics) - Such details are recorded because something of significance might be revealed (better to have too much than not enough) - Aspects of physical appearance (such as neatness, hairstyle) express messages that affect social interactions - Behavior and non-verbal communication say a lot in a situation (ex. amount of eye contact, where people stand, facial expressions, etc.) - Context in which events occur is also important to be noted (helps the researcher understand why an event occurred) - The relevance of what a researcher is observing isn’t always known until later therefore it is important to always take good notes and learning to appreciate wait time Taking Notes - Can contain maps, photos, videos, etc. - Researcher may spend more time writing notes than actually in the field and expects to fill many notebooks - Can be very tedious and boring and the researcher needs to make it a daily habit to write notes immediately after they leave the field as they are detailed and draw on memory - Great care should be taken to protect notes and confidentiality - A researcher’s state of mind, level of attention and conditions in the field affect note taking Types of Field Notes - Best to keep all notes from one period together and to separate types of notes with different pages Jotted notes - Extremely hard to take notes in the field because it looks weird in a social setting, sometimes needs to be done secretively and it takes away from observing what is happening - These notes are short, temporary memory triggers such as words, phrases or pictures written on something convenient like a napkin Direct Observation Notes - Written immediately after leaving the field and are a detailed description of what was heard and seen in concrete specific terms (exact as possible) - Verbatim statements should be in “ “ and not changed in any way w/ dialogue accessories recorded as well - Concrete notes about who was present, what happened, where it occurred, when and under what circumstances are taken Researcher Inference Notes - Researcher listens to members to ‘walk in their shoes’ - 3 steps: listen w/out applying any analytical categories; compare what was heard with what was heard at other times and to what others say; then apply own interpretation to figure out what it means - People never see social relationships, emotions or meaning; they see specific physical actions and hear words and then assign a meaning to them but this social meaning is not always inferred correctly - Meanings of actions are not always self-evident, sometimes people try to deceive others Analytic Notes - Kept to record plans, tactics, ethical and procedural decisions, and self-critiques of tactics - Analytic memos are systematic digressions into the theory where a researcher elaborates on ideas in depth while still in the field Personal Notes - Like a personal diary of personal life events and feelings - 3 functions: coping mechanism and outlet; source of data about personal reactions; give researcher a way to evaluate direct observation or inference notes when they are later read Maps and Diagrams - Researchers often draw maps and diagrams of the features of the field site - Two purposes: helps researcher organize the events in the field and helps convey a field site to others - Spatial map: locates objects and people in physical space - Social map: shows the number or variety of people and the arrangements among them of power, influence, etc. - Temporal map: shows the ebb and flow of people, goods, services, and communications or schedules Machine Recordings to Supplement Memory Tape recorders and video tapes can be helpful but cannot substitute for a researcher’s presence - Can be used after rapport is established, but come with their own set of issues - Increase awareness of surveillance - Reviewing tapes can be time consuming and transcription is expensive and not always accurate Data Quality Reliability in Field Research - Internally consistent: whether the data are plausible given all that is known about a person or event, eliminating common forms of human deception (ie. do pieces fit together in a coherent picture?) - Externally consistency: achieved by verifying or cross-checking observations with other, divergent sources of data - Also includes what is not done or said, but is expected - Reliability depends on the insight, awareness, suspicions and questions of the researcher - Credibility of members is part of this because they researcher relies on what they tell him or her - Subjectivity and context taken into consideration when credibility is being evaluated - Ethnographic fallacy: when a researched takes what he or she observes at face value and does not question what people in a field site say, and focuses only on the immediate concrete details of a field setting while ignoring larger social forces Validity in Field Research - Confidence placed in a researcher`s analysis and data as accurately representing the social world in the field ❖Four kinds of validity tests: o Ecological validity: suggests that events and interactions would occur the same without the researcher being there and without being part of the study o Natural history: offering a highly detailed description of how the research was conducted o Member validation: achieved by asking members of a field site to review and verify the accuracy of the description of their intimate social world (limited in that the perspective of the member may be conflicting, they don`t recognize some aspects of their culture) o Competent insider performance: reached when a researcher truly understands insider assumptions, knows and acts based on tacit local social rules, and can tell and get insider jokes The Field Research Interview The Field Interview - Unstructured, nondirective, in-depth - Involves a mutual sharing of experiences to build trust - Researcher asks concrete questions to stay in line w/ member’s experiences - Avoid sensitive topics at first to build rapport - May be able to probe more deeply after several meetings and clarify past conversations Types of Questions in Field Interviews - Descriptive (used to explore a setting and learn about members), structural (once the researcher has put people/situations into conceptual categories, these questions used to verify them) and contrast (focus on similarities and differences between categories) questions occur concurrently but are used more freq. at different stages - Descriptive and structural in early stages, followed by contrast questions from the middle to the end Informants- A member with whom a field researcher establishes a relationship and who tells about, or informs on, the field ❖Elements of a good informant - Informant lives and breathes the culture - Currently involved in the field - The person can spend time with the researcher - Nonanalytic individuals make better informants Interview Context - Often interviews take place in the person’s home, but this is not always best - Move to another setting for privacy and take into consideration the whole interaction of researcher and a member in a specific context Leaving the Field - Sometimes the end to field researcher comes naturally once theory building ceases or a firm decision to cut off relations is needed - Depending on the length of time and intensity in the field, the researcher and members may experience emotional pain and have difficulty letting go - The researcher may have a hard time going back to their native culture - A researcher can cut ties quickly (not show up one day) or disengage slowly by decreasing involvement - Generally a short period of notice is given and researcher fulfills any responsibilities - Can greatly affect members, ranging from hurt feelings to becoming cool and distant - Fieldwork is not finished until the process of exiting is complete Ethical Dilemmas of Field Research - Dilemmas arise when a researcher is alone in the field and has little time to make a moral decision Deception - Covert research hotly debated with some supporting and others opposing it - Some field sites or activities can only be studied covertly, but covert is never preferred or easier than over research ❖Confidentiality - Moral obligation to uphold the confidentiality of data (includes keeping info from others in the field and disguising names) - If a researcher cannot directly quote a person, they can find documentary evidence that says the same thing and use that ❖Involvement with Deviants - Sometimes a researchers know of and may be involved in illegal activity - Dilemma of building trust/ rapport but not violating your own moral standards ❖Publishing Field Reports - issue between the right of privacy and the right for others to know - If a researcher cannot publish anything that may be offensive, then some things may remain hidden and therefore the report may be hard to believe - Members review the report before it is published to verify accuracy and be approved which isn’t always possible with marginal groups - important to respect member privacy - A compromise position is for the researcher to publish truthful but unflattering info only if it is essential to do so Interviews and Focus Groups 245 - often interviews happen in the home environment so that they are comfortable (this is not always the best, if there is no privacy or if they are preoccupied) - a focus group is a special qualitative research technique in which people are informally interviewed in a group setting - gathers 6 to 12 people in a room with a moderator to discuss a few issues - last about 90 minutes - group members should be homogenous, but not include close friends or relatives or close friends - topics include public attitudes, personal behaviours, a new product, a political candidate, or a number of other topics - often combine focus groups with quantitative research, and the procedure has its own specific strengths and weaknesses Advantages of Focus Groups - allows people to express opinions/ ideas freely - open expression among members of marginalized social groups is encouraged - people feel empowered - researchers are provided a window into how people talk about surveys - interpretation of quantitative survey results is facilitated - participants are able to explain their answers to one another Disadvantages of Focus Groups - ‘polarization effect’ exists—attitudes become more extreme after a group discussion - only one or a few different topics can be discussed - produce fewer ideas than in individual interviews - rarely report all the details of study design/ procedure - researchers cannot reconcile the differences that arise between individual-only and focus group context responses Experiments Types of Design Preexperimental Designs - this design is used where it is difficult to use the classical design - this design has weaknesses that make inferring a causal relationship more difficult One-Shot Case Study Designs - also called the one-group posttest-only design - has only one group, a treatment, and a posttest. - because there is only one group, there is no random assignment One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design - this design has one group, a pretest, a treatment and a posttest. - this design lacks a control group and random assignment. Static Group Comparison - also called the posttest-only nonequivalent group design. - this design has two groups, a posttest, and treatment. - this design lacks random assignment and a pretest. - a major weakness to this design is that any posttest outcome difference between the groups could be due to group differences prior to the experiment instead of the treatment. Quasi-Experimental and Special Designs - this design make identifying a causal relationship more certain than do preexperimental designs. - help researchers test for causal relationships in a variety of situations where the classical design is difficult or inappropriate. - called quasi because this is a variation of classical experimental design - some have randomization but lack a pretest, some use more than two groups, and others substitute many observations of one group over time for a control group. - the researcher has less control over the independent variable than in a classical design Two- Group Posttest-Only Design - identical to the static group comparison, except the groups are randomly assigned. - has all the parts of a classical design, but lacks a pretest. - the random assignment reduces the chance that the groups differed before the treatment, but without the pretest, a researcher cannot be as certain that the groups began on the same dependent variable Interrupted Time Series - in this design, a researcher uses one group and makes multiple pretest measures before and after the treatment Equivalent Time Series - one group design that extends over a time period - instead of one treatment, it has a pretest, then a treatment and posttest, then treatment and posttest, then treatment and posttest and so on. Latin Square Designs - use this design when interested in how several treatments given in different sequences or time orders affect a dependent variable Solomon Four-Group Design - a researcher may believe that the pretest measure has an influence on the treatment or dependent variable. - this design addresses the issue of pretest effects - combines classical experimental design with the two-group posttest-only design and randomly assigns subjects to one of four groups. Factorial Designs - uses two or more independent variables in combination to look at the simultaneous affects. - every combination of the categories in variables (sometimes called factors) is examined. - when each variable contains several categories, the number of combinations grows very quickly. - the treatment or manipulation is not each independent variable, rather, it is each combination of the categories. - the treatment in a factorial design can have two kinds of effects on the dependent variable: main effects and interaction effects - only main effects are present in one-factor or single-treatment designs - in a factorial design, specific combinations of independent variable categories can also have an effect. They are the interaction effects because the categories in a combination interact to produce an effect beyond that of each variable alone. Design Notation - a shorthand system for symbolizing the parts of experimental design. - once one learns design notation, it will be easier to think about and compare designs. - design notation expresses a complex, paragraph-long description of the parts of an
More Less

Related notes for SOAN 2120

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.