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Midterm Review

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University of Guelph
Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
Scott Schau

SOAN 2120 Midterm ReviewThe Scientific MethodRequires 3 attributes1Curiosity of the motivating force behind scientific inquiry2Scepticism means not taking things for granted3Critical Thinking is productive and creativeTo improve our theories we look for information that can falsify our theoryResearch ideas come from theory experience interestcuriosity observation thoughts questions and questions from reading other peoples observationsFinding and Using Background LiteraturePrimary sourcesfirst hand reports of observations or research results that are written by the individuals who conducted the researchSecondary Sourcesdescriptionsummary of anothers work written by someone who did not participate in the research or observationsSocial ScientistsQualitative Social Scientistinvolved in lengthy field studiesoIndepth interviews and intense case analysisQuantitative Social Scientistmakes generalizationsoIndentifies various hypotheses and tests themWhat is ScienceWhat is PseudoscienceA set of logical empirical methods ie Set of ideas based on theories put forth as Drawing inferences from hypothesesscientific when they arentSystematic observation Based on authority text myths and experimentation methodologylegendsEpistemologyscience of knowingCant be testedFoundations of Social Science2 pillars of science are Logic and Observation3 Major Aspects are Theory Data Collection and Data AnalysisDialectics of Social ResearchQuantitative v s Qualitative ApproachesQuantitative ApproachQualitative ApproachPositivistPhenomenologicalObservable variablesInternal perceptual variablesQuantitative measurementDirect qualitative verbal reportsEmphasis on cause and effectThere is a processObjectivityCloseness and extended contact with Prediction and statistically significant participantsassociations among variablesMeaningDeductiveInductiveHomotheticIdiographic Quantitative EvidenceQualitative EvidenceObjective verifiableExplanation and descriptionsControlled observationsPainstaking analysis of documentsPrecise communicationLengthy participation in groups
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