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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
Scott Brown

SOAN 2120 LECTURE NOTESWEEK 1 JAN 9 11 13 Needleman casethought that lead accumulates bones and in teeth Lead and IntelligenceNeedleman Case stnd1975collected from 3329 1 and 2 grade children 270 of the most likely subjects were able to match on other variables 58 high and 100 low lead children no explanation for missing numbers accused of cherry picking academic misconductPeer review processnever stops skepticism develop habit of checking evidence Richard Feynman Jan11 Use critical eye How do we know what we know Direct knowledge things weve experienced ourselves through experience and observationIndirect knowledge consensus on reality something that has been agreed upon through tradition and authority status Common errors of human inquiry and possible safeguards inaccurate observationover generalizationbelief of a non existing pattern selective observationconcentrate on observations that focus on proving hypothesisillogical reasoning Assertion authority and evidence Claims about causationeg Lead exposure causes reduced intelligence accept rejectneed support evidence authority expertise rank of sourceTaking something on Faith Church of Galileos day geocentric model Galileo published dialogue on the two principle world systemssupported heliocentric model planets means wanderers1633trial forced to recant and imprisoned later committed to house arrest book was banned 1757church removed book from index of published books nd1979 Pope John Paul 2called for a reexamination of the Galileo case published secret archives admitted judges were wrong Jan13 What is Science set of logical and empirical methods inductiondeduction from hypothesis systematic observation experimentation rigorous methodology replication impersonal objectiveepistemologyscience of knowingPseudoscience set of ideas based on theories put forth as scientific when they are not based on authority scarred text myths legends cant be tested illogical reasoning often supported by selective use of anecdotes and intuitionFoundations of Social Science Two pillarslogic and observation3 major aspects of social science theory data collection data analysis Some dialects of social research quantitative qualitative approaches nomotheticidiographic explanations inductivedeductive theoryEvidenceQuantitativedeductive objective verifiable controlled observations precise communications go from general to particular Qualitative inductive explanations and descriptions painstaking analysis of documents lengthy participation in a groupDeduction general to particular testing theories testing hypothesistheory is used to generate ideas about behaviour Research produces evidence for testing theories Induction particular to general generating hypothesis observations empirical data used to construct theory that drives theories from data Scientific process involves an alternation of deduction and induction ideographicScientific Method3 attributesCuriosity motivated force behind scientific inquirySkepticism means not taking things for grantedCritical thinking productive and creativesource who is saying itauthority Views of Reality premodern view things as they really are modern accepts diversity not always rightwrong postmodern different images of reality and truthPositivism philosophyAuguste Comterejects speculation emphasizes positive facts scientific knowledge is the only true knowledge test theoriesfrom facts observed many critics paradigm3 main activities in social researchTentative explanation theoryObserving experiment data collectionTesting rival views against data examination of data Cholera London 18481854 John Snow 1848 published pamphlet In the mode of communication of cholera suggested it was transmitted via foodwater opposition it was thought to be caused by contaminated vapors bad air WEEK 2 JAN 16 18 20CholeraPeople not aware of things they cant see therefor doesnt existHe thought it was wateringestedMade a observation that if it was airbornehe would have it by nowNoted where majority were infected narrowed it down to one pump
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