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Intro Methods Exam Review final.docx

6 Pages

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2120
D Walters

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Intro Methods Exam ReviewPurpose of courseAn introduction to research methodology in the social sciencesQuantitative vs QualitativeQuantitative tests theories objective free from bias reliable but is less thorough and less valuable to sensitive issuesQualitative creates theories subjective not free of bias less reliable but more thorougheg Evaluation for exams often starts off with mostly multiple choice with little long answer Easier to evaluate that way with large numbers of people quicker to mark same answers for everyone but is it really an accurate way of measuring your knowledge It then moves into more of an essay format which is much more thorough and valid and we can do this because there are less students however it still takes a long time to evaluate But is everyone then measured by the same criteria Experimental DesignsControlled environment modeled after the natural sciences 3stages Pretest often irrelevant Treatment Apply the experiment to one thinggroup Posttest results we get that we can compareeg TheoryDrug reduces cancer cellsHypothesisCancer cells exposed to the drug will deteriorate Pretestmeasure size of cellsTreatmentPut some cells is 1 dish more in another apply treatment to one cell Cover dishes to prove nothing else has influenced the cellsPosttestMeasure size of cells again and see that the treatment one has gone smallerConclusiondoes reduce cancer cells controlled experimentSocial experiement60s psychological experiment on feelings of happiness Have 3 groups MPT SC and control groupTheoryMPT and SC increase happiness HypothesisGroups 1 and 2 will be happier than group 3 Pretest see how happy they feel in a 5min period Treatment Administer MPT SC and water Posttest See how happy they were in a 5 min periodSurvey ResearchMost research by sociologists and psychologists is surveys No manipulation of subjects popular methods are by phone mail personal interview internet etc Each person on the survey represents a variableAdvantagesTap into attitudes easy to administer to large numbers of people very generalizable to the populationDisadvantagesLack of control eg people are already in the groups you didnt put them thereVariableAnything that varies has more than one category Ask a question and there is more than 1 answer the question is a variableCategorical VariableNo rank order nonnumerical Eg religion gender etcQuantitative variableContinuous ranked and numerical Eg income in dollar amountsMeasures of central tendencyStatistics that summarize the central location of Quantitative variablesMeanAdd all numbers together then divide by the number of numbers MedianOrganize numbers in order from lowest to highest Pick the middle numberModeMost frequently occurring numberDistribution curvesshow the distribution of all numbers on a graph Positively skewedMost observations on the left mean is greater than median
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