SOAN 2120 ALL Lecture Notes

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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
Scott Schau

SOAN2120 January 9 2012 Lead and IntelligenceThe Needleman Case 1975Collected teeth from 3329 first and second grade children o 270 of the most likely subjects o 58 high lead children o 100 low lead children o The less lead in children the more likely they are to get farther in life so he was trying to protect the children He didnt test all 270 so they accused him of cherrypicking on his data picking the best of the data to show and compare to ensure publicationHe was charged because of his way of reporting and couldve lost his credential as a prof He addressed the problem and attempted to correct itAs researchers we should doubt our own findings and those of others Look at every paper criticallySkepticismdevelop a habit of checking the researchJanuary 11 2012 How do we know what we know Direct knowledgeexperience and observationsInformation gained through observations or our own sensesInformation gained through our own personal experienceDont necessarily reflect an objective reality people who are deaf dont learn the sound of things Indirect knowledgetradition and authorityAgreed upon or consensus of realitySociety has agreed upon what the ideas are someone has told you all of this and you have transmitted this to yourself from indirect meansThis is the process of learning and what others believesTraditionpassed on through socializationProsthere are many things that cant be experienced directlyConscan limit inquiry because someone has told you something o Can lead to prejudice close mindednessAuthoritysomeone tells youAuthoritynew knowledge depends on the status of the informerProstrusting the info from people in the fields educational credentialsexperience can help someone with inquiryConsthe authority figures can makes mistakes and misuse their authorityCommon Errors of Human Inquiry and Possible SafeguardsInaccurate observation o Casual semiconscious observations lead to mistakesOvergeneralization o Assuming a few general events are evidence of a patternShould use large repetitive samples to get better data and accuracyReplicationwhether the same study replicated gives the same resultsSelective Observation o Concentrating on observations that fit a pattern or a theory used to explain a particular problemLook at the deviant cases that dont fit the pattern you are looking for to see if there is any merit to your theory and then adjust your theoryIllogical Reasoning o Reaching a conclusion through means that are not logicalMust understand the logic you are using constantly checking your theories and seeing if the data is supporting them or not then adjusting your theoryAssertion Authority and EvidenceClaims and causation o Eg lead exposure causes reduce intelligence o Accept RejectNeed supportEvidencesome claims appear without supportAuthority Expertise or Rank of Source o If authority refers to evidence we expect to see the evidence in order to make our own judgementTaking Something on FaithChurch of Galileos day o Believed that the sun moved around the earthgeocentric modelGalileo Published o Dialogue on the Two Principal World SystemsSupported Heliocentric Modelthe sun as the center of the universe with some planets closest and large others farther away and then the stars on the far outsideGreater depth and simplicity but social and political consequencesQuestioned the authority because he had better observationsGalileo developed the laws of motion came up with a better tool for measurementtelescope o Destroyed the idea of a geocentric model and came up with 5 different observationsSunspotsdots on the sunThe moon wasnt a smooth surface filled with mountains and seasThe milky way was made up of a lot of individual starsVenus had phases just like the moonJupiter had moons o 1633TrialForced to recant and imprisoned later commuted to house arrest book was banned o 1757Church removed book from Index of Prohibited Books o 1979Pope John Paul 11Called for areexamination of the Galileo casePublished secret archivesadmitted Judges were wrong Through better levels of observations were able to come up with a better understanding of the systemWere doing research and have to be ready to do observations and trying to explain whats in front of us and whats really there rather than what we think is thereJanuary 13 2012 What is ScienceScience isA set of logical and empirical methods drawing inferences or deductions from a hypothesesSystematic observation experimentation rigorous methodologyReplicationImpersonalobjectiveEpistemology the science of knowingPseudoscience isA set of ideas based on theories put forth as scientific when they are notBased on authority or scared text myths legendsCant be tested illogicalOften supported by selective use of anecdotesThe Foundations of Social Science The TWO pillars of science are 1 Logic 2 Observation Three major aspects of social science areTheoryData CollectionData AnalysisSome Dialectics of Social ResearchQuantitative and Qualitative ApproachesNomothetic and Idiographic ExplanationsDeductive and Inductive TheoryEvidenceQuantitative EvidenceDeductive Theory o Objective o Verifiable o Controlled Observations o Precise Communication o Specific to the generalQualitative EvidenceInductive Theory o Explanations and descriptions o Painstaking analysis of documents o Lengthy participation in a group o Generalobservations to the specificInduction and Deduction Linking Theory and ResearchDeduction Testingtesting theories or testing hypo thesis o Theory is used to generate ideas about behaviour a research produces evidence for testing theories o Specific to the generalInductionfor generating hypothesis o Observationsempirical data used to construct theory a derive theories from data o Generalobservations to the specificThe scientific process involved an alternation of deduction and inductionThe process of induction uses a limited set of observations to generate a general hypothesis The process of deductions uses a general hypothesis or premise to generate predictions about specific observationsIdiographican approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosynatic causes of a particular condition or event Ex Imagine trying to tell all the reasons you chose the university you did With all those reasons its had to imagine yourself making any other choice Nomothetican approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few causal factors that general impact a class of conditions or events Ex Imagine the 2 or 3 key factors that determine which universities students choose such as proximity
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