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Sociology 1010 Final Exam Review.docx

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SOC 1100
Deanna Behnke- Cook

Sociology 1010 Final Exam Review Chapter 5: Socialization Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity  Socialization: The lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture  Personality: A person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting Human Development: Nature and Nurture  The Biological Sciences- The Role of Nature: initially, Europeans linked cultural differences to biology  The Social Sciences- The Role of Nurture: behaviorism holds that behavior is not instinctive but learned  Isolation (being cut off from the social world) and cause permanent damage Understanding Socialization  Six researchers have made lasting contributions to our understanding of human development: o Sigmund Freud o Jean Piaget o Lawrence Kohlberg o Carol Gilligan o George Herbert Mead o Erik H. Erikson Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality  Basic human needs: Eros and thanatos as opposing forces  Freud’s model of personality o Id: Basic drives o Ego: Efforts to achieve balance o Superego: Culture within  Personality development o Id and superego are in constant states of conflict, with the ego balancing the two Critical Review  Studies reflect gender bias  Influences the study of personality  Sociologists note Freud’s contributions: o Internalization of social norms o Childhood experience have lasting affect Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development  Cognition: How people think and understand  Stages of development: o Sensorimotor stage: Sensory contact understanding o Preoperational stage: Use of language and other symbols o Concrete Operational stage: Perception of casual connections in surroundings o Formal Operational stage: Abstract, critical thinking Critical Review  Differed from Freud, viewing the mind as active and creative  Cognitive stages are the result of biological maturation and social experience  Do people in all societies pass through Piaget’s four stages? Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development  Moral reasoning: The ways in which individuals judge situations as right or wrong  Three stages of moral development: o Preconventional: Young children experience the world as pain or pleasure o Conventional: Teens lose selfishness as they learn to define right and wrong in terms of what pleases parents and conforms to cultural norms o Postconventional: Final stage, considers abstract ethical principles Critical Review  Like Piaget, viewed moral development as stages  Many people don’t reach the final stage  Research limited to boys, generalized to population Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Gender and Moral Development  Compared boy’s and girl’s moral reasoning  Boys develop a care and responsibility perspective o Formal rules define right and wrong  Girls develop a care and responsibility perspective o Personal relationships define ethical reasoning  Girls are socialized to be controlled and eager to please Critical Review  Does nature or nurture account for the differences in males and females?  Many feminists do not agree with essentializing differences  Male and female morals will probably become more similar as more women enter the workplace George Herbert Mead’s Theory of the Social Self  Self: The part of an individuals personality composed of self-awareness and self-image o Self develops only from social interaction o Social experience is the exchange of symbols o Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s point of view o By taking the role of the other, we become self-aware The Looking-Glass Self  The others represent a mirror in which we see ourselves (Charles Horton Cooley)  Our self-image is based on how we think others see us  Mead’s I and Me: the I (subjective element) is in constant interplay with Me (objective element) Development of the Self  Imitation: Infants mimic behavior without understanding intentions  Play: Taking roles of significant others (like parents)  Games: Taking roles of several others at once and following rules  Generalized other: Widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves Critical Review  Mead doesn’t allow biological elements Mead Freud I and Me Id and superego Rejected biological origins of I and Id and superego originated in Me biology Work together cooperatively Locked in continual combat Erik H. Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development  Challenges throughout the life course: o Stage 1: Infancy: trust (versus mistrust) o Stage 2: Toddlerhood: autonomy (vs. doubt and shame) o Stage 3: Preschool: initiative (versus guilt) o Stage 4: Preadolescence: Industriousness (versus inferiority) o Stage 5: Adolescence: Gaining identity (versus confusion) o Stage 6: Young adulthood: Intimacy (versus isolation) o Stage 7: Middle adulthood: making a difference (vs. self absorption) o Stage 8: Old age: Integrity (vs. despair) Critical Review  This theory views personality as a lifelong process and success at one stage prepares us for the next challenge  Critics: Not everyone confronts the challenges in the same order  Not clear if failure to meet one challenge predicts failure in other stages  Do other cultures share Erikson’s definition of successful life? Agents of Socialization  Familiar settings have special importance in the socialization process: o The family o The school o The peer group o The mass media The Family  Most important agent o A loving family produces a happy well-adjusted child o Gender socialization  Parental attention is very important o Bonding and encouragement  Household Environment o Stimulates development  Social Status o Like social class or ethnicity The School  Experience diversity o Racial and gender clustering  Gender socialization continues o From grade school through college, gender-linked activities are encountered  Hidden curriculum o Informal, covert lessons  First bureaucracy o Rules and schedule The Peer Group  A social group whose members have interests, social position and age in common  Sense of self beyond the family  The “generation gap”  Peers often govern short-term goals while parents influence long-term plans  Anticipatory socialization: learning that helps achieve a desired position The Mass Media  Impersonal communications aimed at a wide audience o Canadian children watch television well before they learn to read o The average Canadian watches 21 hours of TV per week o The number of hours of viewing tends to increase with age o Researchers have found that television renders children less likely to use their imaginations Television and Politics  Liberal critics maintain that TV shows mirror our society’s patterns of inequality and rarely challenge the status quo  Some conservative critics are concerned about TV shows advancing liberal causes- “politically correct” (e.g. feminism and gay rights) Television and Violence  A 1998 survey: Two-thirds of TV programming contains violence; characters show no remorse and are not punished  In 1997; the television industry adopted a rating system Socialization and the Life Course  Childhood (Birth through 12) o Care-free time, now the hurried child when the young dress and behave much older  Adolescence (Teens) o Turmoil attributed to cultural inconsistencies  Adulthood o Early: ages 20-40, managing daily affairs o Middle: Ages 40-60, concerns over health, appearance, career, and family  Old Age (Mid 60’s and older) o Anti-elderly bias will diminish as proportion of elderly increases o Leaving riles, demands new learning  Dying o Average lifespan is 79 years o Stages of dying (Kübler-Ross): denial, anger, negotiation, resignation, acceptance The Life Course: Patterns and Variations  Each stage of life is linked to the biological process, but it is also socially constructed  Societies organize the life course by age  Other factors shape lives: race, class, ethnicity, and gender  Stages present problems and transitions that involve learning  Cohort: A category of people with a common characteristic, usually their age Resocialization: Total Institutions  Total Institution: A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff  Three characteristics according to Erving Goffman: o 1. Staff supervise all daily life activities o 2. Environment is standardized o 3. Formal rules and daily schedules  Resocialization: Radically changing someone’s personality by carefully controlling the environment  A two-part process: o Staff erode inmate’s o Staff rebuilds personality using rewards and punishment  Can leave people institutionalized, without the capacity for independent living Chapter 6: Social Interaction in Everyday Life Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Living  Social Interaction: the process by which people act and react in relation to others  Through interaction, we create the reality in which we live  Social Structure: any relatively stable patter of social behavior Status  A social position that a person holds  Status Set: All the statuses held at one time o A teenage girl o Daughter to parents o Sister to brother o Student o A goalie to her hockey team Ascribed and Achieved Status  Ascribed Status: a social position a person receives at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life o Race o Class o Age group  Achieved Status: a social position a person assumes voluntarily that reflects ability and effort o An honor student o An Olympic athlete Master Status  A status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life o Occupation o Recognizable family name o Gender for women o Negative sense: disease, disability Role  Role: behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status  A person holds a status and performs a role  Role Set: a number of roles attached to a single status (e.g., a professor’s role includes being a teacher, colleague, and researcher) Role Conflict and Role Strain  Role Conflict: Conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses o E.g. police officer who catches her own son using drugs at home- mother and police officer  Role Strain: Tension among roles connected to a single status o E.g. manager who tries to balance concern for workers with task requirements- office manager Role Exit  Becoming an “Ex”: Disengaging from social roles can be very traumatic without proper preparation. Process: o Doubts form about ability to continue with a certain role o Examination of new roles leads to a tipping point when one decides to pursue a new direction o Learning new expectations associated with new role o Past role might influence new self The Social Construction of Reality  The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction  The foundation of the symbolic-interaction approach  Social interaction is a complex negotiation of reality: everyday situations involve some agreement with what is going on, but interests and intentions can affect perceptions, e.g., family formation  The Thomas Theorem: Situations we define as real become real in their consequences  Ethnomethodology: the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings o Break the rules and observe reactions o E.g., rules about responding to “How are you?” Reality Building: Class and Culture  Interests and social background affect our perceptions o E.g. people who live in different parts of a city experience it in different ways  People around the world have different realities o E.g. people have different meanings for specific gestures Dramaturgical Analysis: “The Presentation of Self”  Dramaturgical Analysis: The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance  The Presentation of Self of impression management: A person’s efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others Performances  Role performance includes: o Stage setting o Use of props: costume, tone of voice, gesture  Example: Doctor’s office o “Front region” & “back region” o Medical books, framed degrees, stethoscope, big desk, white lab coat, manner, technical language, etc. Non-verbal Communication  Communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech  Body language: e.g. smiling, eye-contact, gestures  Body Language and deception: unintended body language can contradict our planned meaning Gender and Performances  Demeanor or how we carry ourselves is a clue to social power (gender issue)  Personal space: the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy o Men often intrude women’s space and the opposite is seen as a sign of sexual interest o Also eye contact vs. staring o Meaning of touching between men in N.A. Idealization  We construct performances to idealize out intentions  Doctors, professors, and other professionals describe their work as: o Making a contribution to science, helping others, serving the community o But also there are less honorable motives: income, power, prestige, and leisure time o Why do we smile and are nice to people we do not really like? Embarrassment and Tact  Embarrassment: Discomfort following a spoiled performance  Goffman: Embarrassment is “losing face”  Tact is helping someone “save face”  An audience often overlooks flaws in a performance, allowing the actor to avoid embarrassment  Goffman: Although behavior is often spontaneous, it is more patterned than we think Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling  The Biological Side of Emotions Six basic emotions exist and people everywhere use the same facial expressions to show them: o Happy o Sad o Angry o Fear o Disgust o Surprise The Cultural Side of Emotions  Culture, however, does play an important role in guiding human emotions o Culture determines the trigger for emotion, e.g., Is an event defined as happy?  Culture provides rules for display of emotions, e.g., with family or colleagues  Culture guides how we value emotions, e.g., keeping a stiff upper lip  We construct emptions, called emotion management Language: The Social Construction of Gender  Language communicates not only a surface reality but also deeper levels of meaning  One such level involves gender  Language defines men and women differently  Power: men refer to things they own as “she” and women traditionally take the man’s name in marriage  Value: what has greater value, force, or significance is treated as masculine  Attention: directing greater attention to masculine endeavors Reality Play: The Social Construction of Humor  Foundations of humor: a contrast between conventional and unconventional realities—the greater the opposition, the greater the humor: o “Nostalgia is not what it used to be” o “It’s déj{ vu all over again” o “Work is the curse of the drinking class” The Dynamics of Humor: “Getting It”  Humor is tied to a common culture and doesn’t translate easily  Getting the joke makes you an “insider”  Example: o “What was the name of the first sociologist to study the impact of new communications technology on society? E-mail Durkheim” o To “get” this joke, you need to know sociology The Topics of Humor  What is humorous to the Japanese may be lost on the Chinese, Iraqis, or Canadians  First jokes in life are about bodily functions  Some topics are too sensitive for humor treatment, e.g., religious beliefs or tragic accidents (9/11) Theoretical Perspectives on Humor  The functions of humor: humor can act as a safety valve (e.g., “it was just a joke”)  Humor and conflict: humor can oppress others (e.g., “put down” or disadvantaged or advantaged)  A sense of humor allows us to assert our freedom and prevents us from being prisoners of reality Chapter 7: Groups and Organizations Social Groups  Two or more people who identify and interact with one another  Non-groups: o Category: those with a status in common, such as ethnicity or occupation o Crowd: non-interacting group, such as an audience  But, a common experience could turn a non-group into a group, e.g., a power black-out Primary Groups  A small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships  Cooley called this type of group primary because they: o Are the first groups we experience o Shape attitudes, behavior, and identity o Provide economic and other assistance o Are bound by emotion and loyalty Secondary Groups  Large and impersonal groups whose members pursue a specific goal or activity  Characteristics: o Weak emotional ties o Little personal knowledge of each other o People look to one another strategically (for what they can do for one another) o Part of a secondary group could turn itself into a primary group Group Leadership  Important element of group dynamics  Small circles of friends may have no leader at all  However large secondary groups place leaders in a formal chain of command Two Leadership Roles  Instrumental: focuses on the completion of tasks o Leaders make plans, give orders, and get things done o Secondary ties of respect  Expressive: focuses on the group’s well-being o Leaders raise group morale and minimize tension and conflict among members o Primary ties or affection Three leadership styles  Authoritarian: Makes decisions; demands that group members obey o Appreciated in a crisis  Democratic: Member involvement in decision making o Draw on creative ideas of members  Laissez-faire: Leader mainly lets group function on its own Group Conformity  Groups influence the behavior of their members by promoting conformity  Asch’s Research o Line experiment supposedly to study linear perception o Accomplices matched lines incorrectly o Shows willingness to compromise our own judgments to avoid being different (to “fit in”)  Milgram’s research o Compared people’s compulsion to obey authority figures vs. conformity to group lead o Groups are more likely to influence people’s behavior  Janis’s Research o Groupthink: tendency of group members to conform resulting in a narrow view of some issues o E.g., failure to foresee Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor Reference Groups  Social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions  Stouffer’s Research o Soldiers misperceived their own chances of being promoted o We do not make judgments about ourselves in isolation, nor do we compare ourselves with just anyone. In-Groups and Out-Groups  In-Group: a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty o Competitive sports teams’ members towards one another  Out-Group: a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition o Competitive sports teams towards members of teams other than their own Group Size  Dyad o A two member group o Very intimate, but unstable given its size  Triad o A three member group o More stable than dyad and more types of interaction are possible Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender  Large groups turn inward o Members have relationships among themselves o May promote separatism  Heterogeneous groups turn outward o Diverse membership promotes interaction with outsiders  Physical boundaries create social boundaries o If segregation of groups takes place, the chances of contact are limited Networks  Webs of weak social ties o People with occasional contact o Without a sense of boundaries and belonging o Can be a powerful resource to find a job or become established o Gender can shape networks o Web links many but not entire world Formal Organizations  Large Secondary Groups, organized to achieve goals efficiently o Utilitarian: to gain material rewards  Jobs o Normative: to gain a morally worthwhile goal  Voluntary organizations o Coercive: to punish or treat  Total institutions Characteristics of Bureaucracy  Organizational Model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently  Max Weber’s key elements o Specialization o Hierarchy of offices o Rules and regulations o Technical competence o Impersonality o Formal, written communications Organizational Environment  Factors outside an organization that affect its operation o 1. Technology, e.g., computers o 2. Political and economic trends, e.g., booms and busts o 3. Current events, e.g., terrorist attack 9/11 o 4. Population patterns, e.g., size, education, and composition of the populace o 5. Other organizations The Informal Side of Bureaucracy  Human beings are creative and stubborn enough to resist formality  Seeking personal benefit (corruption)  Informal networks of information exist side by side the formal ones  Communication with high superiors is relatively easy with the new information technology Problems of Bureaucracy  Bureaucratic Alienation: Potential to dehumanize individuals, “iron cage”  Bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism: Preoccupation with rules to the point of interfering with meeting goals  Bureaucratic Inertia: perpetuation of the organization  Oligarchy: Rule of the many by the few The Evolution of Formal Organizations  The problems of bureaucracy come from two organizational traits: hierarchy and rigidity  A century ago, Weber’s ideas were revised and complemented which brought scientific management  Three challenges to this model gradually led to flexible organization Scientific Management  Application of scientific principles to the operation of a business promoted by Frederick Winslow Taylor o Identify all operations in a task and time needed to perform them o Discover ways to perform them more efficiently o Provide guidance and incentives to perform job more efficiently The First Challenge: Race and Gender  Representation in management o Smaller proportions of women than men o Smaller proportion of Blacks and Natives than British, French, and Asians o The “Female Advantage”:  Women have “information focus” and men have “image focus”  This may give women an “advantage” in the workplace The Second Challenge: The Japanese Work Organization  Workers hired in groups with same salary and responsibilities  Workers hired for life (“family” like relationship with corporations”  Train workers in all phases of operations  Workers involved in “quality circles”  Companies help workers with mortgages, recreation, etc. Third Challenge: The Changing Nature of Work  Shift from industrial to post-industrial production: o Use of information to produce value  Differences from a century ago: o Creative freedom o Competitive work teams o A fatter organization o Greater flexibility “McDonaldization” of Society  McDonald’s has enjoyed great success  Basic Principles: o Efficiency: Customers do part of work o Predictability: Do it according to a plan o Uniformity: Same product everywhere o Control through automation: Humans are the more unreliable factor o But people could be controlled and dehumanized by the system Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends  Movement toward more creative freedom for highly skilled information workers in post-industrial society  Movement toward increased supervision and discipline and fewer benefits for less skilled service workers that are increasingly numerous  Some are better off than ever, while others worry about holding their jobs Chapter 8: Sexuality and Society Understanding Sexuality  Sexuality is not simply a matter of biology: o It is constructed by society and is an important part of our everyday lives  It is found everywhere—on campus, in the workplace, in advertising, and in the mass media  Although sex can produce much pleasure, it also causes confusion and anxiety in North America Sex: A Biological Issue  The Biological distinction between men and women  Sex and the body: o Primary sex characteristics: the genitals o Secondary sex characteristics: other bodily differences that distinguish mature males and females o Intersexual People: or hermaphrodites; people whose bodies, including genitals, have both male and female characteristics o Transsexuals: People who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other Sex: A Cultural Issue  Our biology does not dictate any specific ways of being sexual  It would be like saying that our desire to eat dictates the particular foods we eat or our table manners  Almost every sexual practice shows considerable variation from one society to another Cultural Variation  Showing affection  Sexual positions and practices  Regulation of openness and timing of sexuality also varies  The Incest Taboo: The norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives is found in every society Sexual Attitudes  Sexuality was regulated in Canada by the Criminal code till 1969:  PM P.E, Trudeau, 1967: o “The state has no place in the bedrooms of the nation” o What people do in the privacy of their bedrooms is their own business o Sexual freedom as long as there is no harm inflicted on others The Sexual Revolution  Kinsey’s studies (1948, 1953) were bestsellers  Youth culture (late 60’s) “If it feels good, do it”  The “pill” (1960) removed fear of pregnancy  Now few remain abstinent till marriage The Sexual Counter-Revolution  Conservative Call: o For “family values” o Against practices associated with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS o Did not turn back the tide: people still decide when and with whom to have sex o However, because of morality or STDs, more people are careful about sexual partners or choosing not to have sex at all Premarital Sex  Premarital sex, within Canada has gained approval over the last 20 years  A high percentage of teens are active  The sexual double standard has been challenged in Canada  But male/female differences in the meaning attached to sex persist: Males are more likely to endorse the fun aspect and women the love aspect Sex Between Adults  Frequency of sex in Canada: o 24% rarely or never o 23% 1-3 times per month o 53% at least once per week  Canada ranks third in percentage of people reporting sexual satisfaction over age 40  Greater sexual contentment in countries with greater sexual equality Extramarital Sex  85% condemn it  33% of men and 35% of women report being cheated on by a partner  53% of married people would forgive an affair  63% of divorces can be attributed to affairs Sexual Orientation  Person’s romantic and emotional attraction to another person o Heterosexuality: sexual attraction to someone of the other sex o Homosexuality: sexual attraction to someone of the same sex o Bisexuality: sexual attraction to people of both sexes o Asexuality: no sexual attraction to people of either sex What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation?  Sexual Orientation: A Product of Society o People in any society attach meanings to sexual activity, and these meanings differ from place to place and over time  Sexual Orientation: A Product of Biology o A growing body of evidence links sexual orientation to the difference in the size of the hypothalamus (in brain, regulates hormones)  Critical Review: o Both nature and nurture play a part How many Gay People Are There?  Specific definition of homosexuality greatly affects research results  People report homosexual activity at some time in their lives  2.8% of men and 1.4% of women define themselves as homosexual  2001 Canadian Census: 34 200 couples (0.5% of total) identified themselves as same-sex unions Gay Rights Movement  Greater acceptance of homosexuality in Canada than in US  But homosexuality regarded as wrong has declined dramatically in both countries  1974, APA votes homosexuality out of its index of mental illness  Same-sex marriages are legal throughout Canada  Homophobia: dread of close personal interaction with gays, lesbians, or bisexuals Sexual Issues and Controversies  Teen pregnancy: on a decline, but higher percentage of unmarried teen pregnancies than in the 1950’s  Pornography: sexually explicit material that causes sexual arousal; its value causes debate o Possession of child porn is an offence o Traditionally criticized on moral grounds o Some claim it’s a power issue o Others claim it is a matter of free speech Prostitution (Selling of sexual services)  Types of prostitution: o Call girls and boys: elite workers who arrange own dates by telephone o Sex workers in “massage parlors” o Streetwalkers are the most victimized  A victimless crime? o People have little protection o Are trapped in it o Are frequently victims of sexual abuse Sexual Assault  A violent act that uses sex to hurt, humiliate or control another person  Reported cases: o 2001-2005, 75 reported incidents/ 100 000 o Victimization studies show high figures o Men are also assaulted: 10% of all incidents o Most rapes involve people who know each other Structural-Functional Analysis  Culture and social institutions regulate with whom and when people seek to reproduce, e.g., adultery and incest are condemned, and people labeled as “illegitimate”  Latent functions of prostitution: sex for those without access and in loveless marriages  Critical Review: o Patters of sexuality are varied over time and round the world Symbolic-Interaction Analysis  Social construction of sexuality: great change in sexuality patterns, e.g., virginity and sex education  Global Comparisons: great diversity in acceptance of patterns, e.g., o Childhood sexual experimentation o Male circumcision and female removal of clitoris  Critical Review: o Some patterns are less variable, e.g., men see women in sexual terms more than vice versa Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis  Sexuality: Reflecting Social Inequality o Female prostitutes arrested more than male “johns” o Streetwalkers more vulnerable than other prostitutes  Sexuality: Creating Social Inequality o Pornography shows men’s power o Sexuality degrades women in a patriarchal society o Described as a sport (scoring) or violence (banging) Queer Theory  A growing body of research findings that challenges the heterosexual bias in Western Society  Challenges heterosexism: o Stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual as “queer” o Most people agree that sexism and racism are wrong while heterosexism is tolerated and often within the law
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