SOC 1100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Secondary Sex Characteristic, George Herbert Mead, Premarital Sex

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 1100
Sociology 1010 Final Exam Review
Chapter 5: Socialization
Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity
Socialization: The lifelong social experience by which individuals develop
their human potential and learn culture
Personality: A person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and
acting
Human Development: Nature and Nurture
The Biological Sciences- The Role of Nature: initially, Europeans linked
cultural differences to biology
The Social Sciences- The Role of Nurture: behaviorism holds that behavior is
not instinctive but learned
Isolation (being cut off from the social world) and cause permanent damage
Understanding Socialization
Six researchers have made lasting contributions to our understanding of
human development:
o Sigmund Freud
o Jean Piaget
o Lawrence Kohlberg
o Carol Gilligan
o George Herbert Mead
o Erik H. Erikson
Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality
Basic human needs: Eros and thanatos as opposing forces
Freud’s model of personality
o Id: Basic drives
o Ego: Efforts to achieve balance
o Superego: Culture within
Personality development
o Id and superego are in constant states of conflict, with the ego
balancing the two
Critical Review
Studies reflect gender bias
Influences the study of personality
Sociologists note Freud’s contributions:
o Internalization of social norms
o Childhood experience have lasting affect
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Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Cognition: How people think and understand
Stages of development:
o Sensorimotor stage: Sensory contact understanding
o Preoperational stage: Use of language and other symbols
o Concrete Operational stage: Perception of casual connections in
surroundings
o Formal Operational stage: Abstract, critical thinking
Critical Review
Differed from Freud, viewing the mind as active and creative
Cognitive stages are the result of biological maturation and social experience
Do people in all societies pass through Piaget’s four stages?
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
Moral reasoning: The ways in which individuals judge situations as right or
wrong
Three stages of moral development:
o Preconventional: Young children experience the world as pain or
pleasure
o Conventional: Teens lose selfishness as they learn to define right and
wrong in terms of what pleases parents and conforms to cultural
norms
o Postconventional: Final stage, considers abstract ethical principles
Critical Review
Like Piaget, viewed moral development as stages
Many people don’t reach the final stage
Research limited to boys, generalized to population
Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Gender and Moral Development
Compared boy’s and girl’s moral reasoning
Boys develop a care and responsibility perspective
o Formal rules define right and wrong
Girls develop a care and responsibility perspective
o Personal relationships define ethical reasoning
Girls are socialized to be controlled and eager to please
Critical Review
Does nature or nurture account for the differences in males and females?
Many feminists do not agree with essentializing differences
Male and female morals will probably become more similar as more women
enter the workplace
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George Herbert Mead’s Theory of the Social Self
Self: The part of an individuals personality composed of self-awareness and
self-image
o Self develops only from social interaction
o Social experience is the exchange of symbols
o Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the
other’s point of view
o By taking the role of the other, we become self-aware
The Looking-Glass Self
The others represent a mirror in which we see ourselves (Charles Horton
Cooley)
Our self-image is based on how we think others see us
Mead’s I and Me: the I (subjective element) is in constant interplay with Me
(objective element)
Development of the Self
Imitation: Infants mimic behavior without understanding intentions
Play: Taking roles of significant others (like parents)
Games: Taking roles of several others at once and following rules
Generalized other: Widespread cultural norms and values we use as a
reference in evaluating ourselves
Critical Review
Mead doesn’t allow biological elements
Mead
Freud
I and Me
Id and superego
Rejected biological origins of I and
Me
Id and superego originated in
biology
Work together cooperatively
Locked in continual combat
Erik H. Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development
Challenges throughout the life course:
o Stage 1: Infancy: trust (versus mistrust)
o Stage 2: Toddlerhood: autonomy (vs. doubt and shame)
o Stage 3: Preschool: initiative (versus guilt)
o Stage 4: Preadolescence: Industriousness (versus inferiority)
o Stage 5: Adolescence: Gaining identity (versus confusion)
o Stage 6: Young adulthood: Intimacy (versus isolation)
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Document Summary

Socialization: the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture. Personality: a person"s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting. The biological sciences- the role of nature: initially, europeans linked cultural differences to biology. The social sciences- the role of nurture: behaviorism holds that behavior is not instinctive but learned. Isolation (being cut off from the social world) and cause permanent damage. Six researchers have made lasting contributions to our understanding of. Jean piaget human development: sigmund freud, lawrence kohlberg, carol gilligan, george herbert mead, erik h. erikson. Basic human needs: eros and thanatos as opposing forces. Freud"s model of personality: id: basic drives, ego: efforts to achieve balance, superego: culture within. Personality development: id and superego are in constant states of conflict, with the ego balancing the two. Influences the study of personality: internalization of social norms, childhood experience have lasting affect.

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