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Final

SOC 1100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Shudra, Burakumin, Rationality


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1100
Professor
Deanna Behnke- Cook
Study Guide
Final

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Heyguys,whenshesaysknowabouttheriseofsociologyasadiscipline,whatisshetalking
about?Notsureifi’moverthinkingthis.
We’restillmissingchapters20!PleaseeverygetyournotesinASAP,weallwanttostart
studying
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1GYoWdl6aF5j17nBAk3TJAFILFqsi9266qLCDOY7Fqxk/
edit?usp=sharing

SOCIOLOGYISTHESYSTEMATICSTUDYOFHUMANSOCIETY
ChapterOne:TheSociologicalPerspective

Whatissociologicalperspective?
Itrevealsthepowerofsocietytoshapeindividualslives
whatwecommonlythinkarechoicesareactuallyaffectedbysocialforces
PeterBurgerdescribedthesociologicalperspectiveasseeingthegeneralintheparticular
CwrightMillsdescribedthesociologicalperspectiveasSeeingthegeneralintheparticular
Ourlivestoanextentaresociallyconstructed
Weliveourlivesaspartofacategoryorcategoriesandourlivesareshapedrelativetoit
Yoursex,socialclass,andraceintersectandhavethehighesteffectsonyourlifehistory

PeterBergerdescribedthesociologicalperspectiveasseeingthegeneralintheparticular
oSociologistswouldidentifygeneralpatternsinbehaviorofindividuals
oRealizethatindividual’sactdifferentlybasedonwhatcategorytheyfitinto(womenversus
men,orchildrenversusadults,etc.)
oGeneralcategorieswefallintoshapeourparticularlifeexperiences

SeeingtheStrangeintheFamiliar
Sociologicalperspectiveisalsoseeingthestrangeinthefamiliar
Societyinfluencesalldecisionsthatwemake
oThinkaboutgoingtouniversity:wethinkwewantedtogobecauseitisclosetohome,
ortosecureagoodjob;wedon’trealizethatwealsofeelpressuredtogobysociety
becauseitistheapparent“norm”.College/universityattendanceisthenormforpeople
between1824inthisdayandageinoursociety
Otherfactorsincludesocioeconomicbackground(highereducationisexpensive),
race/ethnicity,andreligion
oThereforeitisn’treasonabletosaythatattendinguniversity/collegeisaPERSONALchoice


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SeeingPersonalChoiceinContext
Societyinfluencespersonalchoice
oThinkabouthowmanykidsawomanhas.Itappearstobeapersonalchoicebutsocietyis
reallyinfluencingyoutohaveacertainnumber(i.e.intheStatestheaverageis2,inNiger
averageis7)
Evensuicideisinfluencedbysociety
oSocialtiesconnectpeopleandarestrongeramongstthepoor,amongstmarriedpeople
andamongstpeoplewhopracticecertainreligions(i.e.Catholicismcontainslargesocialties
asthechurchcommunitycomestogether)
oWealthyhavemorefreedomthanthepoor
oInDurkheim’stime,menhadmorefreedomthanwomenandthereforelesssocialties

Globalperspective:thestudyofthelargerworldandoursociety’splaceinit
Sociologyshowsusthatourplaceinsocietyshapesourlifeexperiences

oHighincomecountries60countriesincludingCanada,U.S.,WesternEurope,Japan
Thesecountriesproducethemostoftheworld’sgoodsandservicesandthe
peoplelivingthereownmostoftheworld’swealth
oMiddleincomecountriesnationswithastandardoflivingaboutaveragefortheworldas
awhole76nationsincludingmanyinEasternEurope,mostofAsia
Thesecountriesarelikelytoliveinruralcitiesorincitiesandarelikelytoridebikesor
animalsordrivecars
Averageof68yearsofschooling
oLowincomecountriesarenationswithalowstandardoflivinginwhichmostpeopleare
poor
57nationsincludingmanyinAfrica,Haiti

SocialChangeandSociology
Threestagesofsociety:
oTheologicalstage(churchintheMiddleAges)
oMetaphysicalStage(theEnlightenmentandideasofHobbes,Locke,andRousseau
oScientificStage(physics,chemistry,sociology)
Anewindustrialcommunity:
oLaboringstartedbeingdoneinfactoriesratherthanathomeunderthecontrolofstrangers
whoownedthefactories
Thistookpeopleoutoftheirhomesandweakenedthetraditionsthathad
guidedcommunitylifeforcenturies
Thegrowthofcities:
oAcrossEurope,landownerstookpartinwhathistorianscall“enclosuremovement”

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(theyfencedoffmoreandmorefarmlandtocreategrazingareasforsheep,thesourceof
woolforthethrivingtextilemills)
Ascitiesgrewlarger,theseurbanmigrantsfacedmanysocialproblems,
includingpollution,crime,andhomelessness
Politicalchange
oEuropeansviewedsocietyasanexpressionofGod’swillandeveryoneplayedapartinthe
socialplan

SOCIOLOGICALTHEORY

Themajortheoreticalperspectivesdevelopedduringatimeofindustrialization,urbanization,
andincreasingindividualism.

Theoreticalparadigmsaremeanttobeuseful,theyallhaveacorefocus.

structuralfunctionalism:the‘value’ofintegrationofthecomponentsofsociety,cohesion;
sharedvalues,consensus
socialconflict:the‘value’ofrecognizingconflict/powerinequitiesforexplainingsocietyand
socialchange
symbolicinteractionism:the‘value’ofbeingconsciousofthecreativityofhumans(Weber
arguedthathumanaction/interactionwasmotivated[i.e.,meaningful]aswenegotiateour
livesandcreatesocialreality[ies])
feminist:the‘value’ofperceivingsocialorganizationfromthestandpointofwomen,the
‘machinery’ofthesex/gendersystem
postmodernist:thevalueofunderstandingthemultifacetednatureofoursocialworlds,
valuinglocal/’native’/individualknowledges,questioninggrandnarratives


Othertermstoknowfromchapterone:
Sociology:systematicstudyofhumansociety
Sociologicalperspective:thespecialpointofviewofsociologythatseesgeneralpatternsof
societyinthelivesofparticularpeople
Theory:howandwhystatement
Theoreticalapproach:basicimageofsocietythatguidesthinkingandresearch
Socialfunctions:theconsequencesofasocialpatternfortheoperationofsocietyasawhole
Manifestfunctions:therecognizedintendedconsequencesofanysocialpattern
LatentFunctions:Theunrecognizedandunintendedconsequencesofanysocialpattern
Macrolevelorientationsocialstructuresthatshapesocietyasawhole
Microlevelorientationcloseupfocusonsocialinteractioninspecificsituations
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