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SOC 1100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Friedrich Engels, Glass Ceiling, Nuclear Family

Course Code
SOC 1100
Deanna Behnke- Cook
Study Guide

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Sociology Exam Review
Chapter 5: Socialization
Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity
- Socialization: The lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human
potential and learn culture.
- Personality: A person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting
Human Development: Nature and Nurture
- The Biological Sciences: The Role of Nature; initially, Europeans linked cultural
differences to biology
- The Social Sciences: The Role of Nurture; behaviourism holds that behaviour is not
instinctive but learned. Isolation (being cut off from the social world) can cause
permanent developmental damage
Understanding Socialization
- Six researchers have made lasting contributions to our understanding of human
1. Sigmund Freud
2. Jean Piaget
3. Lawrence Kohlberg
4. Carol Gilligan
5. George Herbert Mead
6. Erik H. Erikson
Sigmund Freud s Elements of Personality
- Basic human needs: Eros and Thanatos as opposing forces
- Freud’s model of personality
Id: Basic drives
Ego: Efforts to achieve balance
Superego: Culture within
- Personality development
Id and superego are in constant states of conflict, with the ego balancing the two
Critical Review
- Studies reflect gender bias
- Influences the study of personality
- Sociologists note Freud’s contributions
Internalization of social norms
Childhood experiences have lasting affect
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Jean Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development
- Cognition: How people think and understand
- Stages of development
Sensorimotor stage: Sensory contact understanding
Preoperational stage: Use of language and other symbols
Concrete operational stage: Perception of causal connections in surroundings
Formal operational stage: Abstract, critical thinking
Critical Review
- Differed from Freud, viewing the mind as active and creative.
- Cognitive stages are the result of biological maturation and social experience.
- Do people in all societies pass through Piaget’s four stages?
Lawrence Kohlberg s Theory of Moral Development
- Moral reasoning: The ways in which individuals judge situations as right or wrong
- Three stages in moral development:
Pre conventional: Young children experience the world as pain or pleasure
Conventional: Teens lose selfishness as they learn to define right and wrong in
terms of what pleases parents and conforms to cultural norms
Post conventional: Final stage, considers abstract ethical principles
Critical Review
- Like Piaget, viewed moral development as stages
- Many people don’t reach the final stage.
- Research limited to boys, generalized to population
Carol Gilligan s Theory of Gender and Moral Development
- Compared boy’s and girl’s moral reasoning
- Boys develop a justice perspective
Formal rules define right and wrong
- Girls develop a care and responsibility perspective
Personal relationships define ethical reasoning
- Girls are socialized to be controlled and eager to please
Critical Review
- Does nature or nurture account for the differences in males and females?
- Many feminists do not agree with essentializing differences
- Male and female morals will probably become more similar as more women enter the
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George Herbert Mead s Theory of the Social Self
- Self: The part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-
- Self develops only from social interaction
- Social experience is the exchange of symbols
- Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s point
of view
- By taking the role of the other, we become self-aware
The Looking-Glass Self
- The others represent a mirror in which we see ourselves (Charles Horton Cooley)
- Our self-image is based on how we think others see us
- Mead’s I and Me: the I (subjective element) is in constant interplay with the Me
(objective element)
Development of the Self
- Imitation: Infants mimic behaviour without understanding intentions
- Play: Taking the roles of significant others (like parents)
- Games: Taking the roles of several others at once and following rules
- Generalized other: Widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in
evaluating ourselves
Critical Review
- Mead doesn’t allow biological elements
- Mead: i and me, rejected origins of I and me, work together cooperatively
- Frued: Id and super igo, originated in biology, locked in a continual combat
Erik H. Erikson s Eight Stages of Development
Challenges throughout the life course:
- Stage 1 - Infancy: trust (versus mistrust)
- Stage 2 - Toddlerhood: autonomy (vs. doubt and shame)
- Stage 3 - Preschool: Initiative (versus guilt)
- Stage 4 - Preadolescence: Industriousness (versus inferiority)
- Stage 5 - Adolescence: Gaining identity (versus confusion)
- Stage 6 - Young adulthood: Intimacy (versus isolation)
- Stage 7 - Middle adulthood: Making a difference (versus self-absorption)
- Stage 8 - Old age: Integrity (versus despair)
Critical Review
- This theory views personality as a lifelong process and success at one stage prepares
us for the next challenge
- Critics: Not everyone confronts the challenges in the same order.
- Not clear if failure to meet one challenge predicts failure in other stages
- Do other cultures share Erickson’s definition of successful life?