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Final

SOC 1100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Friedrich Engels, Glass Ceiling, Nuclear Family


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1100
Professor
Deanna Behnke- Cook
Study Guide
Final

Page:
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Sociology Exam Review
Chapter 5: Socialization
Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity
- Socialization: The lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human
potential and learn culture.
- Personality: A person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting
Human Development: Nature and Nurture
- The Biological Sciences: The Role of Nature; initially, Europeans linked cultural
differences to biology
- The Social Sciences: The Role of Nurture; behaviourism holds that behaviour is not
instinctive but learned. Isolation (being cut off from the social world) can cause
permanent developmental damage
Understanding Socialization
- Six researchers have made lasting contributions to our understanding of human
development:
1. Sigmund Freud
2. Jean Piaget
3. Lawrence Kohlberg
4. Carol Gilligan
5. George Herbert Mead
6. Erik H. Erikson
Sigmund Freud s Elements of Personality
- Basic human needs: Eros and Thanatos as opposing forces
- Freud’s model of personality
Id: Basic drives
Ego: Efforts to achieve balance
Superego: Culture within
- Personality development
Id and superego are in constant states of conflict, with the ego balancing the two
Critical Review
- Studies reflect gender bias
- Influences the study of personality
- Sociologists note Freud’s contributions
Internalization of social norms
Childhood experiences have lasting affect
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Jean Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development
- Cognition: How people think and understand
- Stages of development
Sensorimotor stage: Sensory contact understanding
Preoperational stage: Use of language and other symbols
Concrete operational stage: Perception of causal connections in surroundings
Formal operational stage: Abstract, critical thinking
Critical Review
- Differed from Freud, viewing the mind as active and creative.
- Cognitive stages are the result of biological maturation and social experience.
- Do people in all societies pass through Piaget’s four stages?
Lawrence Kohlberg s Theory of Moral Development
- Moral reasoning: The ways in which individuals judge situations as right or wrong
- Three stages in moral development:
Pre conventional: Young children experience the world as pain or pleasure
Conventional: Teens lose selfishness as they learn to define right and wrong in
terms of what pleases parents and conforms to cultural norms
Post conventional: Final stage, considers abstract ethical principles
Critical Review
- Like Piaget, viewed moral development as stages
- Many people don’t reach the final stage.
- Research limited to boys, generalized to population
Carol Gilligan s Theory of Gender and Moral Development
- Compared boy’s and girl’s moral reasoning
- Boys develop a justice perspective
Formal rules define right and wrong
- Girls develop a care and responsibility perspective
Personal relationships define ethical reasoning
- Girls are socialized to be controlled and eager to please
Critical Review
- Does nature or nurture account for the differences in males and females?
- Many feminists do not agree with essentializing differences
- Male and female morals will probably become more similar as more women enter the
workplace
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George Herbert Mead s Theory of the Social Self
- Self: The part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-
image
- Self develops only from social interaction
- Social experience is the exchange of symbols
- Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s point
of view
- By taking the role of the other, we become self-aware
The Looking-Glass Self
- The others represent a mirror in which we see ourselves (Charles Horton Cooley)
- Our self-image is based on how we think others see us
- Mead’s I and Me: the I (subjective element) is in constant interplay with the Me
(objective element)
Development of the Self
- Imitation: Infants mimic behaviour without understanding intentions
- Play: Taking the roles of significant others (like parents)
- Games: Taking the roles of several others at once and following rules
- Generalized other: Widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in
evaluating ourselves
Critical Review
- Mead doesn’t allow biological elements
- Mead: i and me, rejected origins of I and me, work together cooperatively
- Frued: Id and super igo, originated in biology, locked in a continual combat
Erik H. Erikson s Eight Stages of Development
Challenges throughout the life course:
- Stage 1 - Infancy: trust (versus mistrust)
- Stage 2 - Toddlerhood: autonomy (vs. doubt and shame)
- Stage 3 - Preschool: Initiative (versus guilt)
- Stage 4 - Preadolescence: Industriousness (versus inferiority)
- Stage 5 - Adolescence: Gaining identity (versus confusion)
- Stage 6 - Young adulthood: Intimacy (versus isolation)
- Stage 7 - Middle adulthood: Making a difference (versus self-absorption)
- Stage 8 - Old age: Integrity (versus despair)
Critical Review
- This theory views personality as a lifelong process and success at one stage prepares
us for the next challenge
- Critics: Not everyone confronts the challenges in the same order.
- Not clear if failure to meet one challenge predicts failure in other stages
- Do other cultures share Erickson’s definition of successful life?