Chapter 1 the foundations of criminal justice. Actus reus: act of doing something with intent. Canadian charter of rights and freedoms: the primary law of the land and guarantees fundamental freedoms, legal rights, and equality rights for all citizens of canada, including those accused of crimes. Case law: law that is established by previous court decisions and based on the rule of precedent. Common law: law that is based on custom, tradition, and practice and is generally unwritten. Statute law: written laws that have been enacted by legislative body such as the parliament of canada. Conflict model: the view that crime and punishment reflect the power some groups have to influence the formulation and application of criminal law. Value consensus model: the view that the behaviours are defined as criminal and the punishment imposed on offenders reflects commonly held opinions and limits of tolerance. Crime: any act or omission that is prohibited by criminal law.