Crime and Criminal Justice Final Exam Review 1
Objectivist and Subjectivist
uses the scientific method (observation of specific individuals) e.g., why they
committed said crime
consensus: majority agree what is right vs wrong behaviour (human
behaviour classified into good, bad or criminal)
causation: crime is caused by certain events, phenomena in the environment
- find cause to find the solution (objective)
- good for looking at severe crimes (murder, rape)
Label: act determined then labelled a 'crime'
crime seen as "subjective" experience (person A engages in behaviour so
does person B but only one seen as criminal
Power: those without power can easily be labelled criminal
Conflict: who is deciding that a behaviour is criminal?
free will, but power is important in how behaviours are perceived
- good for looking at morality crimes (drug, prostitution)
Crime data: UCR, victimization, and self-report
Proactive is when they patrol the area - Victimless crimes like drug use and
Reactively - The community calls in.
can compare crime rates all over Canada and to other countries
it is consistent from one year to another
Reported - not all crimes are reported to police so we are not getting a true
accurate portrait of crime.
Self - Report Surveys
systematic biases in police data
asking to report crimes you have committed
Strengths - certain crimes are far more likely to be captured in police data
than in others.
poor people are over represented in our statistics relies on memory isn't as
May not be truthful
personally been a victim of a specific crime in a time frame
member of household a victim of crime
worst crime that has happened to them/someone in their household Correlates of Crime (age/gender/class- how they correlate)
- late teens to early twenties.
- young males are more likely to be victims of crime.
- 30 is the cut off age (more crime under the age of 30)
- Homicides - ages of 18 and 24
- organized crime is typically performed by older people.
- most predictor of crime is the gender
- it is a young MANS game
- Infanticide is killing child under the age of one (female - related to a chemical
imbalance or postpartum depression)
- Females are more likely to participate in fraud and theft
Quantitative - how many are male or female, more time spent on youth, adult lasts ,
youth last 90 seconds
Manifest Content is what is on the service - time, space, how much crime,
how many stories in one news paper, how many criminals mentioned are
male/female/age. More time means more important
Latent Content - language, unintended/under the surface, not easy to
count/see, meaning, values attached to a story
Miscarriages of Justice (wrongful convictions) R&L Which ways are people
Miscarriages of Justice
1) Wrongful convictions- you have deemed guilty of a crime you did not commit
2) Failure to respond/protect- failure of state to respond or protect their citizens
Policy changes: to prevent wrongful convictions in the future
Questions: was someone’s rights violated which resulted in their conviction?
Raise questions about the legitimacy of our justice system
Crime control: quick justice leads to wrongful convictions
Death penalty: you cannot fix a wrongful conviction after the fact
How it can occur (WC)
Eyewitness error: people mistakenly testify
Professional misconduct: police bias (wrongful investigation methods,
Erroneous forensic science: when evidence gets contaminated or wrongfully
reported or interpreted
Use of jailhouse informants: Crime and Criminal Justice Final Exam Review 3
There are 5 central tenants engaged in behaviour:
1) Hedonism – Want’s pleasure, feel “good” in-turn avoids pain and harm.
2) Free Will – Want’s to do it.
3) Social Contract – One gives up his/her hedonism for social order.
4) Punishment –Punishment should have value to the person being
punished. Should overweigh the profit, greater seriousness=greater
5) Utilitarianism – is defined as the greatest good for the greatest number of
How deterrence theory relates to classical school
o The penalties and ways to avoid the classical school behaviour are
done through the deterrence theory. This theory helps avoid the
classical school behaviour in criminals so that one will not commit
- Deterrence Theory: There are six types of deterrence.
1) Absolute deterrence – terrible penalties, in which are scared to commit
crime in the future.
2) Relative deterrence – reduced crime if made more difficult or risky,
means having more control.
3) Cross-deterrence – the fear of having a penalty which influences others to
commit another crime. Ex) Car Theft.
4) Restrictive deterrence – a way for criminals to be more cautious.
Narks/Police Officers, Etc.
5) General deterrence – demonstration effect, seeing others being punished.
6) Specific deterrence – directly affects the criminal. The experience of being
punished makes the individual not wanting to commit the crime again.
Arousal Theory (Eyesenck)- augmenters and reducers
- Augmenters: More senses and stimuli, you typically will not be criminal
because you are trying to relax more than anything
- Reducers: Their senses are dulled and are very easily bored and are
constantly trying to increase their arousal and take lots of risk and are much
more likely to be criminal
Functionalist perspective (consensus) what are functionalist arguing/how do
they look at crime
- Main argument: No society is completely crime free and crime has always
existed Latent Functions: are functions of deviance that are un-intended, informally, done
outside the state. This creates jobs. Ex. Police, Courts, Parole, etc.
Manifest Functions: are functions of deviance that are intended on a purpose and
Ways to adapt for anomie (she said she wont ask us about conformity)
Innovative: unacceptable means to obtain goals (I.e. drug dealers or
thieves who sell for cash)
Ritualism: has accepted legit means. Just do the least amount of work
possible to get through the day – don’t expect to get ahead
Retreatism: rejects means as well as the goals – withdraw from society,
escapists. (I.e. drug addicts or the homeless)
Rebellion: either reject or accept the means but going against the status
quo (I.e. communists or anarchists)
ANOMIE- We have a sense of normlessness, we are in a state of which we do
not know how to behave or we do not know the rules
o What you have defines you: pressure on people to have a particular
- The strain theory states that social structures within society may encourage
citizens to commit crime. People adapt to Anomie in different ways. There are
two concepts to this as well:
1) GOALS – this is done through what society sets. Ex. Material Wealth
2) MEANS – the legitimate mean done through education and work. Ex.
Work hard to get that dream.
- Main argument: Some social groups promote criminal acts. We are socialized
to either be conforming or nonconforming, and that groups that encourage
deviance are more likely to have more crime
This relates to White collar crime because the middle-upper class society that
generally commits WCC is a distinct group that promotes this kind of criminal
Techniques of Neutralization
1: deny responsibility – refuse to accept responsibility for their act. Blame others
or circumstances: “I had to do it” “wasn’t my fault” Crime and Criminal Justice Final Exam Review 5
2: deny injury – denying that the injury to others is real. “that person wasn’t really
injured” use harm as a way to justify it
3: deny victim – the victim isn’t really a victim “they deserved it in some way”
4: condemning the condemner – pointing the finger at the person who is making
the accusation. They are a hypocrite in some way (police are corrupt, a teacher was
smoking but giving the student a hard time)
5: appeal to higher loyalties - motivations are honorable, doing it for the greater
good/someone else; “only cowards back down”
Social control theory: inner and outer control
- Our inner controls are made through socialization; we feel guilt when we do
not perform and feel good when they do conform
- Our outer controls is where there is potential loss of social and economic
rewards; we want to conform because we could potential lose something
outside of us that we want. They can be direct or indirect. Indirect is when
people to not want to hurt or disrespect others that they care about to be in
Social Bonds: 4 social bonds that make us conform
Attachment – attachment to conventional others, ties to lie-abiding friends
and family, care about what they think and therefore want to conform
Commitment – people have a commitment to conventional institutions and
goals: goals may not be attached to monetary wealth
Involvement – involvement in conventional activities (part-time jobs,
sports, full-time jobs) adults have a greater investment with their job
If you are busy with conventional activities, there is no time for delinquent
Belief – accept the rules and regulations, belief is in the legitimacy of the
Organized crime: illegal and legal activities and the characteristics of
- Gambling: Can bet on things that are based on chance and is monitored
closely. If you gamble illegally, you cannot be taxed and your winnings are
typically much larger
- Loansharking: somebody is borrowing money from them, and they lend
money that is typically at a higher interest rate then you would have legally.
People do this if they cannot get money legally. Advantages are you get
loaned money with no questions asked besides how they are going to pay them back. Reasons to do this is to revive a business and need money quick.
Sometimes it is to pay off gambling debts. Sometimes it is tips for
investments and do not have the money right at that time. And before banks,
people would get it from a loan shark
- Racketeering: pay a fee for protection. They can be victimized for refusing to
pay. Usually found in drugs. They can engage in legitimate and illegitimate
1. Clients that are engaged in organized crimes are people that follow the law
and do not see themselves as victims and they are not going to tell the police
2. The criminal activity being engaged in is highly rationed, skilled people are
involved and plenty of time is used for planning. They usually have very good
3. Structure and subculture protect them from the police. Most of the
communication if from word of mouth. The subculture itself focuses on
loyalty and silence if somebody is caught
4. The criminal law posses a problem; it is designed to cope with an individual
engaging in a certain offense, rather than a whole organization. Being a
member in an organized crime group is not considered a crime
The saints and the roughnecks
Looking at 2 highschool gangs form a small times
Characteristics: good, white stable students
Activities: Constantly skipped, drinking all day, engaged in vandalism but
none of them were arrested.
School: They mostly got A’s and B’s, yet they were rarely there. A lot of the
teachers gave them the benefit of the doubt
Characteristics: Lower class, white boys, poor, ugly clothes.
Activities: Constantly in trouble with the police even though their
delinquency was not even a quarter of the,m saints. Activities: fighting,
School: Had C’s and D’s. If they did happen to fail something, a teacher
passed them so they didn’t have to deal with them another year.
Result of: Crime and Criminal Justice Final Exam Review 7
Visibility: roughnecks were more visible. More likely to be arrested.
Demeanor: The saints were very apologetic (they sucked up), roughnecks
were more hostile.
Bias: Labeled the roughnecks as delinquent therefore treated them poorly.
Reinforcement : by public, teachers, police.
o Argument: it’s not the act, but the contextual meaning attached to it to
define whether or not it is deviant.
2 types of Labeling theory:
1. Informal labeling: Labelling that occurs through friends/family/peers.
Tends to have less of your consequences
2. Formal labeling: done by agents of social control. Ex: police, doctors,
psychologists etc. People with authority. Consequences are a lot greater
than informal labeling.
Defined vs. definers: It depends on if you are being defined versus the
definer. Those who are being defined as deviant tend to occupy lower social
Power: The argument: dominant groups can force less powerful people to do
the things that they want.
Dramatization of Evil: looked at juveniles.
o Juveniles: argument young people engage in many activities but
they are seen as being objectionable. Adults disapprove of those
activities. Adults make laws to prohibit the activities of young people.
o It is dramatic if one youth is punished. It hopefully keep other people
from doing the same.
Status Degradation (Ceremony)
o This happens when someone has a good standing status has been
degraded in some way.
o People then look down upon you because of this new status.
o It is done through a ceremony of court where you are labeled as guilty
and then sent in to be punished.
o It could also be done through the media. H.S Becker: looked at crime as a label. Focused on:
1) Moral Entrepreneurs
People with power to create in enforced moral norms.
Some people go on a mission to try and make certain things illegal because
they see it as morally wrong.
Actively focus on getting public attention for support.
2) Deviant Career:
Found that deviant people can have careers in the same way they can have
Said you could be deviant and still could go through normal stages of career
4 Stages: Novice (Don’t have any kind of expertise), new recruit(Still new, but
you have some skills behind you and you start gaining experience), Veteran
(mentor new recruits) and retiree (you retire)
3) Master status- Looking at peoples social status. Overrides all other statuses,
regardless of the context. Might affect how people respond to you, how they see you
etc. Master status can be:
o Achieved: Going to school to become a lawyer.
o Ascribed: One in which we are born to. Ex: Born a female/ race.
Marxist Theories “Radical Criminology"
-A perspective that holds that the causes of crime are rooted in social conditions
that empower the wealthy and the politically well organized but disenfranchise
those less fortunate.
- Contemporary radical criminology: holds that causes of crime are rooted in
social conditions that empower the wealthy and the politically well
organized, but disenfranchise those less fortunate
- Chambliss and Seidman’s position in four propositions:
The conditions of one’s life affect one’s values and norms. Complex
societies are composed of groups with widely different life conditions
Complex societies are therefore composed of highly disparate and
conflicting sets of norms Crime and Criminal Justice Final Exam Review 9
The probability of a given group’s having its particular normative system
embodied in law is not distributed equally but is closely related to the
political and economic position of that group
The higher a group’s political or economic position, the greater the
probability that its views will be reflected in laws
Relations of Power: Power people have within society can set up a structure
Societal structure: argued there’s a conflict amongst society and it gets
resolved around issues of power. The structure of society is set up in a way
that favors those with economic power.
Argument: Bourgeoisie gets to create and enforce law.
Bourgeoisie: those who own the means of production. Owns factories. They
paid people to work in their factories.
Proletariat: the workers that sell their labor power for their sustenance.
1. “Reaction to Deprivation” thesis to explain crime
o People who typically aren’t rich, live in poor conditions.
o Argument: people will generally will think and behave in their own
Property crime: means of earning is very low so they engage in property
crime (dealing/selling drugs)
Violent Crime: stealing, or way to vent frustrations for their marginal
2. “Crisis of legitimacy”
Legitimacy of authority: how social order looks at legitimacy of authority
Political leaders and institutions:
Social institution: citizens see social institution as unfair.
Consequences: Social protest, rebellion
E.g.: Riots Athens
Application of Law
1. Instrumental Marxism
Sees the Ruling class as a part of conspiracy to work together to create laws
within their own community.
Explains statistics: That is why we can explain the overrepresentation of the
lower classes and the underrepresentation in the upper classes in the
criminal justice systems. School (education): even other institutions in which people are taught to
benefit the upper classes. (ex: no stealing)
2. Structural Marxism
Do not view the Ruling Class. Says it’s unrealistic. They compete amongst
State role: state mediates between different competing groups.
State protection: the state occasionally protects the workers, but its only
Liberal Conflict theories
Control of law and society application of law Criminal Activity
Conduct norms: How to behave in a particular society.
Culture and subcultures- when different cultures or subcultures come into
contact with one another, it can create conflict.
Groups: humans are compelled by necessity to become involved with one
another in a group context. And that’s the best way for our survival. Could be
an effective way of achieving our best interest.
Looked at the ways in which crime is constructed
Wrote a book: The rich get richer and the poor get prison
Looks at the Reality of crime: Why is it when someone murders a person it
is considered a crime, but if a corporation kills a whole bunch of people, it’s
considered an accident.
o Characteristics (gender, location, race and class)
Fear: who is feared by a typical law abiding persons.
Argument: we have a greater of a chance by being killed by white collared
crime than street crime
Hypothesis: the reality of crime that we have is based on the decisions of
legislatures who define crime into criminal law.
o Police and prosecutors: decisions made by police and prosecutors Crime and Criminal Justice Final Exam Review 11
o Judges and juries: decisions of juries and judges
Victimology: Routine Activities theory
Argument: Everyday living created structure of opportunity that people will
come into contact with.
You need 3 elements:
1. Motivated offender: will be a young male motivated to commit crime.
2. Suitable target: a place or person differs in how suitable they are to be
victimized. Some places are less secure or more open, or easily attainable to
commit a crime against. Some things are more valuable, visible, and
accessible. Targets vary in terms of how well they can be moved.
3. Capable guardianship: Absence of guardianship. The degree to which
targets are protected (home neighbourhood watch, private security, more
Victimology: Punishment (Restitution)
Restitution- a criminal sanction, in particular the payment of compensation
by the offender to the victim.
o At one time in Canada, the responsibility for requesting restitution
law with the victim.
o Many who were not aware of this option failed to petition the court,
and restitution was not ordered.
o Addition to the Criminal Code of Canada: has extended the use of
restitution to criminal cases involving criminal injury.
a judge is allowed to impose a sentence of restitution to cover
requires victim surcharge to be automatically imposed in
addition to any other sanction handed down to an offender
convicted of an offence.
Sexual Assault –level 1: Minor (touching, grabbing, threats)
Sexual assault—level 2: Present of a weapon or a cause of bodily harm. (Any
kind of penetration)
Sexual Assault—level 3: aggravated sexual assault. When there is serious
harm to the victim that requires medical attention.
o 1988: amended to add issues of children in 1988
**-School shootings (general findings- victims), how the victims impact the
type of coverage in the media as a result **-net widening
-Juvenile reporting (legislation) Reporting Juvenile Crime JDA (1908) : Juvenile Delinquency Act: No reporting of
juvenile delinquency at this time Court was closed and was informal
YOA (1984) : 12-17 yrs couldn't be identified but it could be talked about if accused
of crime Court open to reporters because of the belief that we would come up with
better policies to react to these problems Instead the media sensationalized it YCJA
(2001) if 16 or 17 convicted of serious offence (murders, aggravated sexual assault)
and given an adult sentence can be identified UNLESS you live in Quebec where in
no circumstance can a young person be identified in the media (lowest rates of
crime by young people in the country)
-Crime news models, market/manipulative know the difference
1) Market model: news is shaped by the interest of the public
2) Manipulative model: news agencies/owners decide what stories are told, usually
in a way that is in their best
Homicide - The death of a human being that was the result of something not
most common is manslaughter, least common is first degree
First Degree: Murder that’s planned or deliberate. Most serious.
Most common form of F.D.M. (if you kill someone, and they
Sentence: life in prison without parole before 25 years.
Second degree murder: In the criminal code, defined as murder that is not first
Burden of proof is on the crown attorney.
It account for about 20-30% of homicides.
The sentence is 25 years with the possibility of parole prior to 25 years.
Manslaughter: Homicide that occurs through the heat of passion. Reaction has to be
Other criteria: refer to fighting. The intent was assault, but someone ends up
dying. You were in a fight and it got taken too far.
Typically, people don’t intend to kill people. Happens in the heat of the
Sentence: MAX- 25 years. Average that someone gets though is 8-15 years.
Infanticide: When a female/mother caused the death of newborn. The child has to
be under the age of 1.
Usually the sentence is a psychiatric supervision. It depends on the
circumstances among the homicide.
Mass murder: the murder of 2 or more persons at a time or place at the same time.
The most common is: ·Family annihilation: when family members are victims. Crime and Criminal Justice Final Exam Review 13
Pseudo-Commando- have fascinations with fire arms. Planning it out, going it
out, and shoot everyone.
Disgruntled Employee: When a worker feels wronged and they go back and
seek revenge. AKA going postal.
Disciple: Following of a charismatic leader. Happens in cults. ·
Set and run: set an emotion but are absent from the scene and watch it from far.
Serial KillingCommonly believed that it’s a series of 3 homicides by an individual or
couple that spans over weeks, months, or years.
4 types of robbers:
1) Chronic - do it frequently but do not specialize
2) Professional - long careers in robbery, lots of research and preparation
3) Intensive - spur of the moment, depends on opportunity
4) Occasional - usually not alone, not usually planned - easy to catch
5 types of robberies:
1) Bank robberies - notorious, lots of planning, usually no weapon
2) Convenience stores - low profit, usually use weapon, typically successful
3) Street Mugging - steal off a person (pick pocket, steal purse)
4) Home Invasion - pushing in someones house while they are home *new
5) Car Jacking - wait for car to be open, steal & sell or part out - target valuable
– Typical among young people for joy riding or selling for parts
– Considered theft over 5000
- Refers to crime committed either by a corporation or by an individual acting
on behalf of the corporation
- Victim = consumer, public
- Greed creates crime
- Elites can often defuse the problem o Get product recalled, pay a fine
- Government can implement laws
- Examples are pollution, cut corners, unsafe products
- Typically in the private sector and not for profit sector
- Compete with others so they feel pressure to cut corners
- Auto industry would sell unsafe vehicles, Ford Pinto was unsafe and caused
500 deaths, Ford was charged with murder
3. Market Structure
- Looks at how a market is controlled by different corporations and how
company controls an item
- They decide to hurt the customer by raising prices
- Conditions under which a company operates
- If a company can do something to make some money then they will
- Companies pollute and cut corners to save money
Individual Level Factors
- Differential Association
- Through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes,
techniques, and motives for criminal behaviour.
- Requires access and opportunity - cannot be committed by everyone
Techniques of Neutralization
1. Deny Responsibility
- Refuse to except responsibility for their acts and blame others
- Example: Wasn’t me, had no choice
2. Deny Injury
- Deny the injury to others is real, use harm as a way to justify
- Example: Nobody was hurt so it wasn’t deviant
3. Deny Victim
- Deny that the victim is actually a victim
- Example: he was bullying me so he was asking for it
4. Condemn the Condemners
- Pointing back at the person who is making the accusation, being hypocritical
in some way
- Related to police
- Example: If I don’t do it to them they will do it to me
5. Appeal to Higher Loyalties
- Someone is behaving deviant and their motivations are honourable, doing
something for the greater good
- Example: I have to feed my family Crime and Criminal Justice Final Exam Review 15
- white collar crime, it was because they wear suits to work
- Sutherland argued that corporate crime was still a crime because it violates
norms and caused crime
- Many people believed it wasn’t a crime
- Example: Price fixing, unsafe products, unnecessary repairs
- Seeks to explain a particular type of over reaction to a perceived social
- How people react to police and authority, often exaggerated
- Feeling that members of a society pose a threat to society and the moral order,
something must be done
- Based on the idea that people are deviant only when society labels them as
- Drug users are often also labeled as deviant
- People are in competition for scarce resources, the rich often control the