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SOC 1500 Short Answer Review for Final Exam (F11)

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SOC 1500
Alexander Shvarts

1 SOC 1500 Exam Review: Short Answer Lecture 5: Drug Crime 1. Talk about the role of moral entrepreneurs in influencing US drug policies. Compare how drug policies were formed in the US, UK, and Canada. The role of moral entrepreneurs is to determine which behaviors are criminalized. The most powerful use law to stigmatize the less powerful. Moral entrepreneurs define conditions as offensive and harmful, enforcing rules and providing enforcers. Moral entrepreneurs are groups that find certain behaviors offensive and encourage society to make that behavior illegal. An example of a moral entrepreneur is MADD. They are a group that find drinking and driving offensive and encouraged politicians and legislators to make laws against it and make punishments more severe. This labeling process is not always fair. The least influential members of society are most often caught and labeled deviant. When looking at the formation of drug policies, the policies differ in the US, UK, and Canada. 1) United States: The public opinion or the medical opinion does NOT shape drug policy, influenced by treasury department in 1925, could give small dosages to patients with drug addiction to relieve stress. Things like cocaine were actually put in products (1925) Federal bureau of narcotics: created by Harry Anslinger (moral entrepreneur)… after FBN was established in 1930, any physician to prescribe drugs would be arrested 2) United Kingdom: Drugs are used for medical use, in 50’s U.S pressured U.N to demand an international ban of heroin, Britain turned into a drug free economy in 1955 3) Canada: Anti-opium legislation passed in 1908: Mackenzie King’s investigation let to the opiated used by the Chinese to be illegal. Medical doctors insisted on treating drug addicts as ill but the general public saw them as criminals. The RCMP convinced the public that they could wage a war on drugs. The Mountie drug squads became leaders in the moral crusade within Canada. 2. What ideas does Hackler advocate to reduce drug crime? Hackler advocates normalizing drug use instead of commercial forces glamorizing drug use. Hackler believes advertising drug use should be banned and educational advertising should be put in place. He believes small amounts of drug possession should be decriminalized (harm reduction approach) and that heroin should be available through prescription. 3. What did Desroche find in his study of higher level of drug trafficking in Canada? Traffickers use friendship, kinship, criminal business and ethnic networks to select partners, employees, suppliers and distributors. Drug groups are small. 2 Leaders hire risk takers so they can protect themselves from dangerous activities such as crossing the border. Peripheral/fringe members are more vulnerable to be arrested; they are within businesses who ship drugs across borders, include lawyers, accountants and bankers whose job is to launder money, conceal its source and invest in profits. Drug syndicates are small because it is difficult to corrupt officials and the larger the group, the more police attention. Small drug trafficking businesses reap millions of dollars in profits. The competition for drug trade is high in Canada and the divisions of labor keep it alive. 4. Why do people become drug dealers and addicts according to strain theory? Or according to social ecology theories? Strain Theories: Black youths: May be more represented in drug subcultures Native people’s: Abuse of alcohol, limited access to other things (a) Merton: Crime is structured by the lower-class phenomenon – which results from strain created by a gap between culturally structural means Five types of adaptation - Conformity, Innovation, Ritualism, Retreatism, Rebellion (b) Cloward and Ohlin: Different types of illegitimate opportunities three different types of gangs or subcultures: criminal, conflict, retreatist (c) Albert Cohen: Schools: ‘middle-class measuring rod’-reversing middle-class standards, subcultures form as a result of a hostile reaction to the strain experienced by the lower-class youths (d) Messner and Rosenfeld: American culture emphasizes monetary success, weak emphasis on the importance of legitimate means = crime (e) Kobrin: Opportunities differ in different communities (f)Hagan and McCarthy: Street life - illegitimate opportunity structure - criminal capital in those areas Social Ecology Theories: (a) Shaw and McKay: Socially disorganized neighborhoods lead individuals to commit crime. This continues within a given area because of cultural transmission. Crime: Results from the failure of neighborhood institutions and organizations such as families, school, and churches to provide adequate social controls. Crime is high among blacks: Because majority of blacks live in those areas where the probabilities of anyone committing a crime are high. Changing deteriorated neighbourhoods would reduce crime (b) Thrasher: Gangs arise in city slums (economic inequality, and where social controls are weak) (c) Sampson and Wilson: Crime is concentrated among the underclass in inner- city neighborhoods (poor) (d) Bursick and Grasmick: Economic forces such as de-industrialization and the “flight of the affluent” (white vs. black) from inner cities, leaves these neighborhoods lacking their most skilled members, and what remains is the most disadvantaged groups of minority populations – crime is an alternative means of attaining economic goals 3 5. How did the structure of society influence drug addiction for the following four groups: African Americans, Irish, Native, disadvantaged women. 1. Recent history of Ireland > Alcohol problem 2. African Americans in North America 3. Native People in Canada 4. Disadvantaged Women Lecture 6: Violent Crime 1. What do biological or psychological theories say about why people commit violent crimes? What solutions do they advocate? Biological Theory People commit crime due to brain damage; could be caused by convicted parents, lower IQ’s, abuse, low brain serotonin, high testosterone levels, mental issues such as psychopathy, schizophrenia or major depression all caused from brain damage and can lead to crime. James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein (1985): Bad families produce bad children and your culture or ethnic background has a biological basis- example: Japanese introverts, American- extroverts… cause more crime Criticism of Wilson and Herrnstein’s Theory: Skin color is strongly influenced by genetics, but must we conclude that unemployment, doing poorly in school, and crime are explained by black skin? History of slavery, racial prejudice, and blocked employment opportunity has contributed to that correlation. Extra notes: In the 1930s, Hooton, a Harvard anthropologist, concluded that criminals represent an aggregate of sociologically and biologically inferior individuals. In the 1950s, William Sheldon related particular body type (i.e. endomorph, ectomorph, and mesomorph) to particular kinds of criminal behavior. He found that the muscular mesomorphs were the type that were most likely to become involved in delinquent or criminal behavior. The policy implications of some of the biological theories, culminating in the eugenics movement and policies such as involuntary sterilization made biological theories unpopular. However, in recent years, biological theories have once again become scientifically and politically respectable. These theorists propose that factors, such as brain damage, epileptic disorders, and endocrine disorders are direct causes of criminal behavior. The individual is made a delinquent by predisposing forces within the individual operating beyond his control. Biological theories consider the direct effect of physical and physiological processes on behavior and the indirect effect of environment on the brain whose processes then control behavior. Some people are “born criminal” or inherit a predisposition to crime which may become manifest when the individual is exposed to certain “triggering” environments. Humans are determined by biological forces beyond individual control and that our behavior reflects a prewritten code. Many of the early theorists believed that there was no free will. These theorists study the offender or criminal rather than the offense or crime. They identify the defective biological attributes, such chromosome balance, hormone imbalance, or genetic makeup that make some people prone to deviate under certain environmental conditions. 4 Psychological Theories Motivation to commit delinquent acts. 1. Psychoanalytical theorists (i.e. Freud) 2. Moral development theorists (i.e. Piaget, Kohlberg) 3. Personality theorists (i.e. Eysenck) 4. Social learning theorists (i.e. Bandura) 5. Operant conditioning theorists (i.e. Skinner) 6. Psychopathy theorists (i.e. Cleckley, Hare) Criminal offender categories: psychotic, psychopath, neurotic • Antisocial Personality Disorder: psychopathy – examples - Ted Bundy, Clifford Olson Criticisms: They are not paying attention to environmental factors or social factors, mentally ill criminals: only a small percentage of the total criminal population  No reliable method of distinguishing between normal and abnormal minds  Personality as a cause of criminal behavior  Biological and psychological theories – too simple of answers 2. Subcultures of Violence – What is it? What do Wolfgang and Ferracuti mean about subcultures of violence. Provide 1-2 examples of subcultures of violence.  Wolfgang and Ferracuti (1967): homicide is most prevalent among relatively homogenous/mixed in subcultural groups in most large urban communities. They are well integrated into a group of people who accept violence as the norm – create subcultures of violence, where men are expected to defend their honor with weapons Own words: violence is mostly revolved around smaller subcultures within larger communities where they have been taught violence is a sign of defense and they accept it as the norm. specifically, men are expected to fight to honor their weapons and possessions  Evidence: (1) Prison subcultures (2) School girls who beat up other girls may fit this pattern (Artz)- the girls beat up other girls because they acted inappropriately and deserve it. 3. According to Phillips, what conditions fostered a subculture of violence for African Americans?  Julie Phillips (1997) focusing on African Americans summarizes three theories that may also explain homicide in Canada: 1. Social control: When forms of social control such as family and communities are weak, they are less able to restrain violence in the family and community. 2. Discrimination and inequality: Increase in discrimination and inequality, higher level of frustration = violence 3. Limited economic opportunities: Violent activity may be a rational act for blacks faced with limited economic opportunities. 5 4. Discuss Archer and Gartner’s two theoretical models that explain the impact of war on homicide.  Dan Archer and Rosemary Gartner (1976): Wars contribute to violence. During major wars, crime rates are lower. After a war, there are factors that might lead to a reduction of violence, but the return of young males might increase violent crime.  Archer and Gartner – two theoretical models explain the impact of war on homicide: 1. Catharsis model: Wars substitute public violence for private violence. Homicide would decrease during and after the war. 2. Legitimation of violence model: Social approval of violence as a way of solving problems reduces inhibitions against taking human life. Wars legitimate killing people. This model predicts increases in homicide in postwar societies. Lecture 7: Property Crime 1. Is stealing all a rational or pleasurable behavior? What does Shavoer, Katz, Cohen, Catz/Nettley say?  Neal Shover (1996): People growing up within poverty areas, have a poor upbringing and do not realize the importance of school and working hard to receive rewards. Thus they go out and party… when they are in need of money they resort to stealing because they do not see other alternative. These people do try to get out of their habits but see no other option and usually end up being penalized (POVERTY=PARTY=STEALING)  Jack Katz (1988): Rational choice perspective, material needs are insufficient to account for the fascination with theft.  Albert Cohen (1955): For many criminals crime is fun. They steal for the “hell of it.”  Katz (1988) and Nettler (1982): Committing crime excites. Monetary gain as the principal reward cannot account for robbery, or for most other property crime. Robbery is risky and, from a rational standpoint, a dangerous, difficult, and not an easy way to make a living. Those who persist spend time in jail and face considerable risk, but sensual attraction comes from the excitement, thrill, pursuit, satisfaction of forcing others to bow to their will. 2. Why do people commit property crime according to social control theories? Give an example of 1-2 theories to illustrate your point.  Social control theorists: Social bonds to institutions such as family and school constrain crime. Social controls are learned, and were it not for these controls, we would all be lawbreakers. Ineffective external socialization can result in weak controls of behavior. Parents can work as a deterrent to criminal behavior in their children or they can lead them to commit crime (depending on parenting style). Criminal parents may provide a model of aggression. For those who are successful in school and who enjoy their 6 educational experience, school makes them less likely to engage in delinquency.  Two examples: 1) Reiss (1951): If social controls and personal controls are absent, delinquency will result. 2) Nye (1958): Family is the most significant group in the development of social controls. Children who came from families that were close and in which there was agreement on basic values were unlikely to be delinquent. 3. Why do people commit property crime according to strain theory, or social ecology theory. Provide 1-2 examples. Strain theories and Subcultural theories (a) Albert K. Cohen (1955 – Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang): Schools - “middle-class measuring rod” – standards needed to lead one to success in the middle-class world, and lower-class children may have difficulty meeting these standards. Adult role models from the lower classes provide different set of norms. (b)Merton (1938): Crime is normal, deviant adaptations to structural strain. Crime is a symptom of the gap between culturally prescribed aspirations and the socially structured means for realizing their aspirations. In America, having money and wealth is a universal goal. Socially structured avenues such as schooling and occupation mobility are the accepted institutional means of reaching such goals, but these avenues may be only attainable for some members of society, such as the middle- or upper-class youths. Not everyone can reach these higher levels of success due to situations such as poverty or racial discrimination in education and employment. To fix this we must consider five goals: 1) Conformity; 2) Innovation; 3) Ritualism; 4) Retreatism; 5) Rebellion (CHRIS IS REALLY, REALLY RED!) Social Ecological Theories (a)Shaw and McKay: Crime’s greatest near the center of the city. Crime is a product of socially disorganized neighborhoods. Crime is an environmentally structured choice for those seeking to survive in socially disorganized neighborhoods. Delinquency and gang subcultures continued in the neighborhoods all throughout history, no matter which ethnic group was dominant. In these communities, families and schools do not provide social control. Delinquency continues from generation to generation in this community (known as cultural transmission). Crime is high among blacks because the majority of blacks live in those areas where the probabilities of anyone committing a crime are high. Changing deteriorated neighborhoods would reduce crime. (SHAW AND MCKAY-POOR AREAS DEVELOP THROUGH OUT TIME) (b)Thrasher (Gangs – 1963): Gangs arise in city slums, characterized by physical deterioration and inequality, and where social controls are weak. 7 Lecture 8: Corporate Crime 1. Why do people commit corporate crime according to strain theory and give an example of a strain theorist (or rational choice theory, mutualization, critical). Strain theory says that Lower-class crime is caused by failure to achieve success’ goals, while upper-class crimes arise from an over-commitment to success goals. Braithwaite (1979): Affluent white-collar professional and corporate executives perceive themselves as never making sufficient profit. More powerful people become white-collar criminals because of vast opportunities and very little risk. Additional Theories Mentioned: Rational Choice Theory:  Hirschi and Gottfredson (1987): Apply rational choice principles to white- collar crime to develop a general theory of crime. They argue that all crime is motivated by rational self-interest. White-collar crime involves crimes of the rich and powerful, committed in the course of an occupation, in which a position of power, influence, or trust is used for the purpose of individual or organizational gain. White collar crime is no different from any other crime, personal profit! Neutralization Theory:  Cressey (1953): Showed how embezzlers consider their action in advance in order to decide whether they will likely be able to justify it afterward should they be subject to questioning. This theory believes people will commit the crime if they can justify their actions. Example; cheat on income tax, they say “everyone cheats on their income taxes!” Critical Theory:  Snider (1993): Corporate crime does more harm, costs more money, and ruins more lives than assaults, thefts, and rape. Critical theorists call attention to crime committed by the powerful. Capitalism increases crime, including crime by corporations because of the pressure to make profits 2. What are the different legal solutions that we can implement to deal with corporate crime? 1) Improve working conditions and w
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