Anomie: rapidly shifting moral values produce normlessness, were the individual has little guide to what is socially acceptable; associated with merton. Atavistic anomalies: the physical characteristics of born criminals that indicate they are throwbacks to primitive people. Bourgeoisie: in marxist theory, the owners of the means of production; the capitalist ruling class. Chicago school: pioneering research on the social ecology of the city and urban crime developed in the early 20th century by sociologists at the uofchicago. Classical criminology: the theory that people have free will, choose to commit crime for reasons of greed or need, and can be controlled only by the fear of criminal sanctions. Cohort: a sample of subjects who"s behaviour is followed over a period. Criminal anthropology: early efforts to discover a biological basis to crime through physical measurements usually associated with lombroso. Criminal justice system: the stages trough which the offender passes, including police, courts, and corrections.