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SOC 1500
Mavis Morton

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Crime and Criminal Justice – Sept 17 2009th Self Report Survey: International Youth Survey (IYS) ­ the IYS was administrated to a sample of students in grades 7 through 9 in Toronto in April and May 2006. >[findings] violent delinquency cannot be attributed solely to the characteristics of individual students; rather, conditions associated with schools and the areas in which they are located may also play a roll. Victimization Survey  E.g. Canadian Urban Victimization Survey ­ victimization experiences of individuals samples at household via the phone. ­ Demographic info i.e. age, gender, martial status, # of children. ­ Collected every 5 years in Canada (15 years of age and older) Sexual assault, robbery, assault, break and enter, theft of personal property, household property, motor vehicle theft, vandalism. Limitations: - victims misrepresentation i.e. telescoping - underreporting (embarrassment, fear, memory) - victims may not know it’s a crime. - some crimes cannot be measured this way. - age limitations ,16 years - sampling errors and inadequate question design. Conflict tactic scale – measuring acts of violence/ crime. [hitting wife with a bat vs. missing with a wet diaper] Observational Accounts: ­ E.G. participant observation (i.e. research on gangs, squeegee kids, prostitutes, police etc.) ­ Researcher interacting with a group while observing their behaviour [way for the researcher to observe what was going on…documenting how something works, watching it work] Limitations/Benefits: ­ validity – observing first hand events in natural setting ­ hard to make inference/generalizations in a larger population (pop observing vs larger) Crime Rate may REALLY be changing! ­ during the 1990’s crime rates steadily declined in Canada’s stabilizing in early 2000’s. ­ the overall crime rate dropped by 5% in 2008 ­ police reported drug offences has increased since the early 1990s and, in 2007, reached its highest point in 20 years. -(Police reported crime rate = UCR) - > police reported crime in Canada continues to fall in 2008. Both the volume of crime and its overall severity dropped by 5%. > the national homicide rate increased slightly in 2008 (+2%), the third increase in the past 5 years. > the youth crime rate decreased 5%, the fourth decline in the past 5 years. [general perception…youth = bad] Gun crimes among teens on the rise: Feb 2008 -youth (12-17) accused of a firearm-related offences has risen in three of the past four years, increasing in 32% since 2002. -in 2006, 1287 young people were accused of a violent offence in which a gun was used. They accounted for 2.8% of all youth accused of violence. TRANSLATION = IN CANADA IN 2006 ­ 1287 youth accused of violent crime in 2006 ­ 36 of them used guns (mainly in robbery) ­ 27 youth used guns in 2002 violent crimes they were accused of committing. = **media misleads people!!!** Gender and Crime -Generalizability: studies derived from the study of men assumed to be able to account for female crime/offenders [only studied men, and if women were involved they would use the same assumptions received from the male studies] - Gender-Ratio Problem: why is it women and men have vastly divergent rates of criminal offending (Miller, 2003:16)? “A new look at the gender gap in offending” 1. has the gender gap in VIOLENT offending changed over time? 2. Has the gender gap in VIOLENT offending changed over time once taken in account race and age? Gender Gap in Offending - Gender gap in offending- women commit fewer & less serious crimes than men - Gender convergence- gender gap narrows - Gender divergence – gender gap widens - Gender stability – gender gap remains unchanged Findings? ­ no evidence of gender divergence or increase in violence committed by females regardless of timeframe, offender’s race or age (Rennison) ­ violent offending among females continues to be low ­ increase in “bad girls” is false. “Violent Crimes More Prevalent in the North” headline. ­ Stats Canada report northern Canadians are more then 3 times as likely to fall victim to violent crimes than the rest of the country, most often at the hands of people they know. “Crime higher in Western Canada” Statistics Canada” – headline Crime Specialization across Can Provinces ­ is the crime rate higher as you move from east to west across Canada? Geographical Measure of Crime ­ Location Quotient (LQ) – measures crime specialization ­ Ration of the % of a type of crime in a province/ ter relative to the % of that crime in all of Canada. LQ If LQ = 1 region has proportional share of a particular crime If LQ is >1 large share IF LQ < 1 small share Problems with crime rate calculation ­ crime arte calculation problematic in regions that have pop. Less than 100 000 ­ e.g. Nunavut (pop = 30, 782) had 2 homicides in 2006 therefore homicide rate of 6.5 per 100 000 Crime and Criminal Justice September 22 2009 Media’s representation of Crime News media’s coverage of crime and consequences: Overdramatize crime: - crime waves [devoting a lot of attention to a small amount of crime] / moral panics *[definition and example…why?]  (e.g. guns in Toronto by youth… 2005 “The year of the gun”, “The Nasty Girl phenomenon” , “The war on drugs”, prohibition of alcohol – alcohol involved in crime.., terrorism, gangs, cyber bullying, serial killers) - over-reporting violent crime [“if it bleeds it leads” , homicide was accounting for 25% of all newspaper and TV crime stories even though it represents less then 1% of all crime, focus on street crime and bizarre events] - neglecting white collar crime [under reporting of other crimes (corporate crime)] Crime myths: - racial and ethnic minorities [beliefs, unproven, possibly false… ex. Nasty girl phenomenon, distortion to the way crime is reported  based on the kind of crime, offender? Victim? Race? Class? Gender? Age?...what’s not there as much as what is there. (about girl or women, gender always identified) - youth [makes street crime and violent crime again youth look like it is ramped] - virtuous crimes [more attention to crimes whose victims seem innocent (small child, elderly woman, white wealthy woman] ** go to link on power point**  flow of information between the incident, how it gets reported in the news, public gets info, over dramatized, media and politicians have a relationship, affect on reaction on politicians, politicians go to public to get support  politicians are using the media to gain public support. [two way street, work with and for and sometimes against the media] e.g. new legislation regarding cyber bullying… moral panics = impact population by way of legislation. Media picks up an issue (like gun crime in Toronto) and has its way with it … Front page of the Toronto Star. New Headline: “Gun violence on the wane;” - “Following the year of the gun in 2005, major crimes are down in Toronto. Police point to crackdowns as a key reason but studies argue the need for more investment in social programs” – Media boosts police but also insist that politicians should invest in a way to help.  what is the language being used and how is it being used? Other Problems - Value laden language - Failing to provide social/ historical context [very important but left out… why is this showing up now? What’s going on? Why is this making the headlines now? ] - Misleading information [misleading bc it isn’t there, it points to something that may not actually be what is going on – language used. E.g. interview selected people to give certain point of view. Misleading data, e.g. reporting increases of crime without reporting increases of population size. Pictures can be misleading – pictures that depict strangers as the accused/ offenders …we are much more likely to be assaulted by people we know. Media influences public attitudes by: 1. tending not to report or emphasize declining crime rates. 2. Publishing national crime figures once a year [no official numbers being reported] 3. Rarely put crime stories in statistical context [not using a crime rate…not linking to population] Canada’s Crime Rate – down - Canada’s national crime rate, based on data reported by police, declined for the third consecutive year in 2007, continuing the downward trend in police-reported crime since the rate peaked in 1991. Violent Crime (2008) down - violent crime: Decline in most serious offences - police reported 594 homicides, down slightly from 606 in 2006. The homicide rate fell for the second year in a row, continuing a long term decline representation of crime in the media 1. criminal behaviours is decontextualized the structured nature of society [only getting a snap shot] 2. media tens to represent the unusual as the usual 3. crime related to morality and its declined 4. pictures and headlines *** 5 Key Concepts of Media Literacy 1. all media messages are “constructed”. 2. Each medium has different characteristics, strengths, and a unique “language” of construction 3. Different people interpret the same media message in different ways 4. Media messages are produced for particular purposes, profit, persuasion, education, and artistic expression 5. Media have embedded September 24  2009 Library website:  To find newspaper articles click “resources” and scroll down.  ­use a “*” to get plural  ­ alternate spelling, use a “?” in the middle of the word  ▯click on subject and course guides  ­ news sources  ­newspapers page on library website  ­alternative press webpage ­use subject and course guides  ­ PRIMO for DVDs, print resources, “old” stuff  ­ Websites  ­research help desk [email protected]  Test Questions: (October 1  2009)   Multiple choice and short answer  Topics:  ­sociological imagination, intro to law, criminology, crime ­counting crime, how much crime  ­crime, media and representation   ▯lectures and discussions/ text/ articles online  ­ How to count crime? How much crime?  ­ Crime , media literacy, how crime is represented  1. what does it mean to have a “sociological imagination”? 2. provide an example of a “social problem” and explain why C. Wright Mills  would consider it to be a “social problem” vs. a “private trouble”?  3. what perspective understands the definition of crime to be factual and precise? 4. To what does the social­reaction perspective refer? 5. How do we define :”crime” 6. What do crime stats measure? 7. How do you calculate the crime rate  8. What 5 factors may  9. Provide an example which shows how the crime rate can be “policing sensitive” 10. State 3 reasons why the crime rate can be “report sensitive” 11. What is it called when the crime rate changed because of a change in the law? 12. Name 3 formal methods/ tools Canada uses for counting crime  13. From where does the ucr data come 14. What are 3 limitations of the UCS  15. Self report survey  16. Similarities and differences between UCR dad and victimization surveys  17. How did changes to the definition of “sexual assault” in 1983 affect the “crime  rate”  18. What benefits are there to using observational accounts  19. Provide some specific examples of police reported crime st Representation of criminalized women:  ­ pathologised  ▯insane  ▯‘gripped by biological forces beyond their control’  [linking hormones to offending = using biology as a way to explain an offending pattern  or a reason for victimization]  ­ infantilized  ▯treated like children  ▯passive, weak, gullible and easily led astray – will blindly follow criminal men  into a life of crime.  Crime and Criminal Justicth  Tuesday September 29     2009   Representation of criminalized women: Pathologised: ­insane ­“gripped by biological forces beyond their control”  Infantilized:  ­treated like children  ­ passive, weak, gullible and easily led astray – will blindly follow criminal men into a  life of crime.  Demonized:  ­ criminal woman as purely evil  Sexualized:  ­ morally bankrupt, i.e. sexual conduct ­ “sex kitten”  [how she looked, her behaviour, worthiness as a victim, empathy]  Masculine/ Lesbian ­ views any woman who break from stereotypical passive roles as deviant and  likely to be criminal –  ­ strong women in movies are depicted as “masculine” and lesbian characters and  often presented as “villains”  Thinking about theories:  ­ the social context in which theories develop  ­ the pros and cons of each theory, including how useful each theory might be when  applied to real life situations [do they work or do they not work?]   ­ the influence of each theory on the contemporary Canadian criminal justice  system [examples of a way a particular theory shows up in the criminal justice  system]  Theoretical Categories:  emphasis on individual [individual is the thing which explains crime and  criminal behaviour]   emphasis on social structure [institutions, education, media, religion]   emphasis on social process [interaction between individuals and societies, groups,  families]   emphasis on social conflict [who has power and who doesn’t]  Theories of Criminology [are people born bad? Or made mad? / nature vs. nurture]     ­ early theories of criminology (religion & superstition)  ­ Classical School   ▯Beccaria  ▯Bentham   are the causes of crime and criminology found primarily in the individual or  primarily in the environment?  ­ what explains crime should be connected to fixing crime.  (example: do you think that people who commit crimes should get their “just  diverts” ?)    ▯focusing on the individual : traced back to the period that was referred to as the  Enlightment (we can use human reason to shape history) // differs from the idea  that it was Gods will as opposed to social reason – a challenge to the idea that it w  was not up to God or the Devil.   ▯people committed crime bc they were evil.   >>God would help the innocent . Ordeal in Europe was often by Fire, metal or  water.  Classical School  ­ a criminological perspective developed in Europe in late 1700s and early 1800s ­ roots in the Enlightenment – age of reason  ­ ****  Classical Criminology Concepts 1. individual rights  2. human capacity to reason (free will)  3. rule of law  Unitarian Social Philosophers (concerned with changing the legal system and the  penilsystem)  ­ Cesare Beccaria 1738­1794 [punishments were barbaric/ should be based on  utilitarianism = greatest good for the greatest number / punishment should make  people not want to engage in it  … examine individuals as rational thinkers (more  pleasure and less pain)   ▯ social contract – balance of power between the state and the individual   ▯ rule of law  ­ everyone should be treated equally without fear of favor in the  eyes of the law. [charter of rights and freedoms – sec. 15 (equality rights) –  everyone is equal before and under the law. ] [ the punishment better be more then  the benefit of actually doing the crime]   ▯ punishment should deter crime and therefore be swift, certain and proportional  to the crime  ­ Jeremy Bentham 1748­1832  ▯ Hedonistic calculus of utilitarianism  ­ individuals could weigh the consequence of their behaviour before acting to  maximize pleasure and minimize pain [punishment of crime more painful then the  pleasure you get from breaking the law.  Individuals = human calculators (place  factors and features into equation and then decide if you are going to commit  crime) the law exists to create happiness for all / punishment creates  unhappiness…. Can only be justified if it prevents more evil.   ▯ panopticon [no need for guards… the prisoners are watching each other/  regulate behaviour] – watchmen do not need to be on duty at all times.  Heritage of Classical School  Rationality – humans have free will, and actions are a result of choice  Hedonism – pleasure and pain, or reward and punishment are chosen  Punishment – criminal punishment is a deterrent to unlawful behaviour  Human rights – society owes to its citizens respect for their human rights in the face of  gov’t action Due process – presumed innocent until proven otherwise ­Rational, reasoning individual  ­Crime is a result of individuals making a calculation to do wrong or engage in a criminal  behaviour. ­Source of individuality lies with the individual  (how can the punishment be just enough to keep people from committing the crime)  Critique of Classical Theory:  general principles did not always serve justice   equality BEFORE the law masks a world of deep social inequalities [people  aren’t all equal and come from different social locations ]  punishment has differential impacts [if you treat everyone the same, some  consequences will be felt differently amongst different people]  (do you think that people think about crime in this way before they commit a  crime/ would the notion of deterrence work?) [do you think that everyone is  rational? And rational to the same extent? – children VS adults, people with  mental health challenges?] –poor gets a fine and rich gets a fine = not equality Crime and Criminal Justice  October 6  2009  ** Contemporary examples of Classical Perspective: ­ charter of rights and freedoms: protect our human rights [embodiment of classical  theoretical notions about how we understand and respond to crime] [interest in  balancing individual rights and freedoms with state power]  ­ principles of sentencing = reflection of classical thinking (theory of deterrence) –  keeping people from doing it again = classical thought of how to deter crime  (specific deterrence and general deterrence = do it to a person so that people  lean) / for a crime to be a crime you need to intend  ­ notion of determinant sentences – if you do X you will get Y as a punishment ­ swiftness and certainty of a punishment  ­ equality before and under the law  ­ more just approach and a more open approach to responding to crime / more  humanitarian  New Right Criminology ­ 1980’s  ­ refers to a particular political orientation rather than to a systematic coherent  theory in its own right  ­ it’s a conservative perspective in criminology ­ economic efficiency above all else  [conservative perspective, interest in what is economically efficiency and rational  (helps it make decisions about responding)  New Right context  ­ rise in “law and order” politics ­ return to classical theory and biological positivism  ­ war on crime and attack on the disorder of society  [some programs and resources put in place to try to address inequalities were  removed, more of an interest in economic efficiency ]  focus on the individual = need more prisons. / more of an increased launching of  law and order policies and campaigns = increased fear of crime (drugs, terrorism)  and interest of responding to that in a more serious and severe way.  Two Themes:  1. responsibility = on individual 2. punishment in responding to crimes  > Us vs. Them ­ Authoritarian populism­ a process in which crime is ideologically conveyed in a  serious of moral panics about “law­and­order” issues  ­ extent and seriousness of crime highlighted and in turn used to justify harsher  penalties & state authority in more spheres of everyday social life  Law and Order commonsense assumptions: [general public thinks about crime and crime  control (new right)] ­ crime rates are soaring ­ crime is worse then ever before ­ the criminal justice system is soft on crime ­ criminal justice system is loaded in favour of criminals.   [assumptions = therefore in order to respond we need more police, they should  have more power, courts should have harsher penalties, and more retribution]  New Right Argument: re: Crime ­ crime is a matter of “rational choice” and people make decisions ­ if you “do the crime” then you must do the time  “Just Deserts” philosophy  ­ retribution [get what’s coming to you, society will see justice being served] ­ deterrence [got to be tough otherwise everyone will do it, do X = get y/] ­ incapacitation [lock up and throw away the key] ­ punishment proportional to the crime (except if moral standard needs to be  reinforced)  Criminal Justice system Implementation: ­ regulation of those population groups most closely identified with the  “underclass” ­ identifying, classifying and managing groups in the community assessed on the  basis of risk and dangerousness  ­ “zero tolerance” policies and three strikes and your out punishment. [bullying /  assaulting in schools] Critiques of New Right ­ignores inequalities toward particular populations  assumes consensus exists.    ­focus on punishment & vengeance ­creates an atmosphere of fear of crime ­uses a narrow definition of crime i.e. street crime ­sate power remains the solution, rather than alternative measure of dispute resolution   ­Do away with long established human rights and civil rights protection ­Social difference interpreted as evidence of social deviance. [argument about US and  THEM, different = risky, dangerous, bad…sets up and US and THEM approach to  identifying, profiling and responding]  Stephen Harper’s platform on crime:  ­ hire more police officers ­ toughen the youth criminal justice act  ­ strenghthen broder security ­ Deport non­citizens convisted of crimes ­ Introduce mandatory minimum sentencing for serious crimes  2007 Ontario PC’s on safer communities:  ­ when a community is safe, people know that there is one law for everyone. No  one is above the law, no one is beyond it, and no one is beneath the notice and  mercy of our justice system  Ontairo PC’s on crime:  nTruth and Transparency in the Justice System Act –  qStats re: wait times for trials, crimes committed on bail, and sureties are collected  when bail is violated; plea bargains, and jail credits ngo after bail, parole and probation violators.  ngo after every penny, every time, when bail is breached.  nautomatic inquests any time someone on bail, probation or parole causes a death.  ncitizens’ rewards program Tackling Crime and Strengthening the Security of Canadians ­ improve security of boarders  ­ reform the criminal justice system to ensure the rights of law­abiding citizens  turmp the rights of criminals [US against THEM] ­ mandatory prison centences and toucher baisl for those with guns  ­ stronger mesures for impared  ­ keep repeat offenders behind bars  ­ 2007 Ontario Liberal Party on crime: ­The Ontario Liberal approach to personal and community security is to be tough on  crime and tough on the causes of crime.  ­1,000 new municipal police officers &  200 new OPP officers ­new law that requires hospitals to report gun shot wounds to the police ­$68­million Guns and Gangs strategy.  ­Provincial Advisory Group on Marijuana Grow Operations and a Crystal Meth Task  Force to combat the illegal drug trade.  2007 Ontario NDP on crime: ­Building Hope Action Plan: Overcoming the Violence.”  ­comprehensive strategy to stop the violence on our streets, and transform the lives and  conditions of people living in troubled neighbourhoods.  [what is it focusing on – benefits and critiques/ how does it show up or not show up in the  justice system]  Positive School Biological Positivism: Ceseare Lombroso 1836­1909  (individual is the focus)  Positivist Criminology Concepts ­Natural science methods applied to the study of society ­ crime is explained by forces and factors outside the decision­making ability of the  individual ­ deviance lies within the abnormal individual [what makes the individual abnormal]  ­consensus exists re: deviant or normal  [founded on the scientists belief that society can be studied using principles of natural  outside that makes a person commit a crime or not commit a crime]  ] [what is going on   ▯looking for the “bad guys” with a scientific model.  ­human behaviour is determined not by free choice but factors beyond the individual’s  ­biological theories: basic determinants of human behaviour, including criminality, are  constitutionally or physiologically based and inherited   people are NOT equal they are different!   Focus of analysis is on the nature and characteristics of the OFFENDER rather   The positivist approach is directed towards the treatment vs. punishment of  offenders (therefore indeterminate sentences)  POSITIVITISM  ▯Biologogial positive: criminal was  born bad! he study of the human condition Classical to Positivism:  Classicism Positivism crime a legal entity crime a biological or n n psychological entity free will behaviour is determined n n punishment as treatment of criminals to n n deterrent protect society Father of Criminology Cesaer Lombroso  Atavism = criminality a result of primitive  urges and traits that survived the evolutionary  process and led to heightened criminal tendencies. Stigmata = physical characteristics [criminals are born bad, the body could reveal the criminal = identify characteristics]   Lombroso on WOMEN:      ­He reasoned that normal women were kept on the path of virtue by “piety, maternity,  want of passion, sexual coldness, weakness and an undeveloped intelligence.”   ­“Wickedness” of female offender ENORMOUS to triumph over so many obstacles. Biological Theories:  ­ Constitutional theories   ▯body type  ▯genetics, inheritance e.g. twin studies, IQ  ­Body Chemistry ­Hormones e.g. testosterone ­Chemical substances e.g. alcohol and drugs, nutrition  Sociobiology e.g. Biological determinism Criminal Anthropology  Ernest A. Hooton – 1930’s    Prisoners tended to have low foreheads, crooked noses, narrow jaws, small ears, long  necks and stooped shoulders “…primary cause of crime is biological inferiority” (Hooton, 1939b:130). ­William Sheldon, 1940’s – Body build or somatype 1.Mesomorphs – well developed muscles & an athletic appearance = criminal behaviour 2.Endomorphs – heavy builds and known for lethargic behaviour 3.Ectomorphs – tall, thin, less social & more intellectual than the other types Biologically Based Policy Issues:  ­Medical, chemical or surgical procedures OR long term isolation, incarceration and  incapacitation ­Merconium testing for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ­Eugenics i.e. abortion of defective fetuses/enforced sterilization ­Capital punishment instead of rehabilitation ­Criminal profiling Crime and Criminal Justice October 8  2009  Positivist Criminology  ­ human behaviour is determined not by free choice but factors beyond the  individual’s control ­ biological theories: basic determinants of human behaviour, including criminality,  are constitutionally or physiologically based and inherited.  [no sense punishing if they were born that way]  Biologically Based Policy Issues:  ­ Medical, chemical or surgical procedures OR long term isolation, incarceration and  incapacitation ­ Merconium testing for fetal alcohol syndrome ­ Eugenics i.e. abortion of defective fetuses enforced sterilization ­ Capital punishment instead of rehabilitation ­ Criminal profiling [identify traits and characteristics] Theories  ­ set of interrelated propositions, constructed and fitted together logically, which  claim to explain one or more aspects of the world around us Thinking about theories: ­ the social context in which theories develop ­ the pros and cons of each theory, including how useful each theory might be  when applied to real life situations  ­ the influence/application of each theory [where does this show up currently: ] [Darwin = theorist in biological]  Psychological Positivism: ­ criminal was MADE not born!  ­ Externally caused biological problems or internal psychological factors that were  treatable! [could be born with a condition or disorder to cause MAKE this]  Psychological Theories: ­ forensic psychiatry  ▯psychopath ­ psychoanalytic theory [Freud] ­ frustration­aggression ­ social learning theory ­ behaviour theory  psychology used as an explanation: “Stefanie Rengel – a victim of today’s society”  Example 1:  ­ the 2 kids that did this to Stefanie are just plain ole sick in the head. You can  blame it on a song, the media, parents, friends, society etc. Who knows, but you’d  think 2 kids that can figure out all recent technologies to communicative can  figure out that killing is Wrong  Personality Disorders  ­ antisocial personality disorder that involves disregard for a violation of, the  rights of others, and a low level of guilt ­ psychopaths  ­natural Born killers = title suggests biology / movie = made bad because they became  psychologically abnormal because of external influences that affected psychological  development.  Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud  ▯human personality contains a three part structure:  SUPEREGO (ethical principle) / EGO (reality principle) / ID (pleasure principle)  ­ when id is uncontrolled, individual can’t repress instinctive impulses ­ when the ego fails to develop in the 1  few years of life, the superego fails to  develop later, individual is antisocial = CRIME criticisms of Freud’s take on crime:  1. he thought that antisocial behaviour was mentally disordered behaviour 2. it neglects social forces and over emphasizes childhood and experiences 3. research relies on case histories of individuals under treatment or on samples of  offenders Freud and Women’s Crime  ­ women suffered from “penis envy” ­ most girls’ delinquency was related to their sexual needs  ­ women and girls with histories of crime and delinquency need treatment to help  them adjust to their “proper traditional gender roles  [mental disorders = lack of a penis therefore acted strangely / deviant woman =  wants to be a man, ends up being neurotic bc she cant find one…tries to get closer  to a man to give herself the penis she never had // only explanation for female  offending = she wants to be a man]  Social Learning Theory  ­ Albert Bandura social learning theory   ▯ modeling – bobo doll experiment [aggressive acts towards an inflated doll –  children = more aggressive… observing other people doing similar things] ­ aggressive behaviour is learned from 3 sources:  1. family (one of the largest influences)  2. subculture influences (tv)  3. symbolic modeling  Critique of Biological/ Psychological Positivism ­ focus on street crime  ­ accepts the state’s definition of crime by ignoring the possibility that society is  ruling groups define what is criminal  ­ circular reasoning  [based on a consencious model of understanding ] ­ sometimes paints an overly deterministic model of human behaviour that denies free  will altogether ­ offending akin to a sickness ­ reduce criminal behaviour to a single cause and prescribe treatment  ­ inability to control for all variables i.e. environment  [simple, doesn’t require us to challenge the way society operates]  Legacy of Positivism  ­ shift away from hard line classical thinking of individual responsibility ­ people can act for reasons outside theiry own control, and these factors may  mitigate level of responsibility [hold individual responsible]  ­ forensic psychiatry & forensic psychology (criminal profiling) [more current way  it shows up today in the criminal justice system]  Crime and Criminology October 13  2009  Emphasis on the individual ­ classical school ­ biological explanations  ▯psychological explanations ▯ sychological theory ­ personality disorders ­ learning theories  ▯ ocial learning theory  Theoretical Categories:  ­emphasis on individual  emphasis on social structure – TODAY  emphasis on social process emphasis on social conflict  Sociological Theories: Emphasis on Social Structure  ­ Social disorganization   ▯park and burgess – social ecology (Chicago School)  ▯shaw and McKay – cultural transmission (Chicago school)  ­ Strain theory  ▯merton – anomie  ▯Cohen – “middle class measuring rod”  ▯Cloward and Ohlin – differential opportunity Theory  Strain Theories ­ consensus model: a general consensus of shared norms and values exist in  society that some individuals and groups fail to adjust to ­ social structure and social learning influence the attitudes and behaviours of  the individual ­ examine social pathology rather than individual pathology [interested in looking at social structure (institutions and the way things are  organized) and social learning (the way people act) – no longer thinking that it is  the individual that is abnormal, now we believe that it is social pathology = what’s  happening in society is wrong ]  Strain theory: ­ crime is a result of social strain within society ­ strains are associated with:  a) “structural opportunities” – inadequate opportunities to achieve goals  (Opportunity Theory)  b) “cultural processes” – criminal behaviour is learned in social situations (Social  Learning Theory or Subcultural Theory)  [can be related to either structural component or cultural]  Response or solution to crime  1. enhance opportunities to reduce social strain (e.g. education, employment,  recreation opportunities)  2. resocialize into conventional goals and means (e.g. encourage interaction with  healthy peers)  [change structure of society because something is wrong with it] – resocialize  people  th Emile Durkeim 20  century His analysis of society:  1. close relationship between social structure (the organzisation of society) e.g.  division of labour 2. norms and values of society (social and cultural life) e.g. collective conscience  shapes and regulates behaviour.  [relationships between social structure (who does what in a society in terms of  work), division of labour and the way societies were organized combined with  how norms and values regulate our behaviour. … idea about how we think about  things, norms and values have an effect of shaping and regulating how people  behave] Durkheim and Strain Theory ­ Durkheim established that crime is essentially a social phenomenon and  criminality is a product of a specific kind of social order  ­ A society without shared norms functions poorly  ▯ n anomie (norm­less­ness) which leads to a breakdown in society and increases  suicide and crime [inability to regulate citizens]  [crime is normal and necessary – help distinguish and balance functional and  dysfunctional aspects… helps to identify what was functioning well and what  wasn’t – need for balance. ] Social Disorganization Social disorganization theories link crime to neighbourhood ecological characteristics.  ­ Park and Burgess – social ecology [worried about rapid social change in and  around Chicago – interested in looking at the way social changes were related to  crime (amount and how it was happening)  ­ Shaw and Mckay – cultural transmission  [ both adhere to social disorganization – both came out of the “Chicago school” .  Interested in explaining crime by looking at the environment/ ecology of their  communities or society.  Social Ecology – Park and Burgess [ recognizes that crime shows up unevenly distributed  in different geographical regions – characteristics of neighbourhoods that were different  they tried to identify them (what make them socially disorganized: amount of business  striving, how much social services were operating…] ­ Crime­ridden neighbourhoods – family, school, business, community, social  service agencies have broken down and no longer perform their expected  function ­ Residents experience conflict and despair and therefore, antisocial behaviour.  [did not have common set of values which would keep their residents on the  straight in narrow – indicators for social disorganization = high unemployment  rate, high school drop out rate, deteriorating housing, high level of poverty, large  number of single parent families, ethnic and racial heterogeneity]  Cultural Transmission – Shaw and McKay  ­ Chicago had developed into distinct neighbourhoods – some poor some affluent  ­ Poverty­ridden areas  ▯high population turnover, new immigrants and disrupted  informal social controls.  [used social disorganization theory but they linked culture to crime – influence  behaviour. Linked life in the transitional slum areas, increased or affected people’s  activity in crime.  Interested and concerned in changing urban environment (in  and around Chicago, ecology is important…developed into distinct  neighbourhoods) – poor areas = high population turn over, made people less  concerned about each other – didn’t defend each other. Immigrants coming in and  can afford lower areas)    ▯less social control on this new population and the  argument was that these new areas that had new people (heterogeneity) = perfect  sponging ground for crimes … increase of young criminals.  Policy Implications: ­ assimilation of immigrants into mainstream society ­ grass roots organizing [work with community and neighbourhood and get people  working together (cleaning neighbourhood and planting etc.) ­ community development and empowerment (e.g. offer programs for students and  kids who are dropping out of school … keep them working with their 
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