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Final

notes exam.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1500
Professor
Mavis Morton

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Songs for the Class Behind Enemy Lines ­ "If It BleedsnIt Feeds" INXS ­ "Devil Inside" Gowan ­ "Criminal Mind" George Thorogood ­ "Bad to the Bone" Crosby, Stills, & Nash ­ "American Dream" Dixie Chicks ­ "Goodbye Earl" My Chemical Romance ­ "Teenagers" "O Canada" Linkin Park ­ "Guilty All The Same" Robbie Robertson ­ "Sacrifice" Tracy Chapman's ­"Talkin 'Bout a Revolution" Rihannia – “Disturbia” Consensus Theories 1.)  Classical Theory  • Enlightenment 1600’s to 1700’s Western Europe • Transition from feudalism to capitalism • Development and role of the state • Development of common law and civil law • Cesare Beccaria & Jeremy Bentham • 3 R’s o Rights (individual) o Reason/Rationality o Rule of law • Utilitarian principle ▯ greatest happiness for the greatest good • Free will and rational actors • People choose to commit crime based on a calculation of perceived costs and benefits • Solution? Deterrence (if costs > benefits) = punishment • Punishment can deter crime if it is: o Swift o Certain o Proportional to the crime • Tough on crime (you do the crime, you do the time), zero tolerance policies, just desserts,  determinant sentences • Mandatory Minimum Sentences o Certainty, simple, clear, predictable o If you do X, the minimum punishment you will receive is Y • Critiques o General principles did not always serve justice = rational actors? o Equality before the law masks a world of deep social inequalities. Punishment has  differential impacts 2.)  New Right Criminology  • 1980’s • Refers to a particular political orientation rather than to systematic coherent theory • Conservative perspective • Economic efficiency is priority • Rise in law and order politics • Return to classical theory and biological positivism • War on crime and attack on the disorder of society • 2 themes: o Responsibility for crime squarely on the individual o Reasserting the important of punishment in responding to crime • Critique: o Individual focus – ignores inequalities o Assumes consensus and state power remains solution o Punishment focus o Fear of crime atmosphere o Narrow definition of crime 3.)  Biological Theory  • Human behavior is determined not by free choice but factors beyond the individual’s control – people  who are deviant/criminal are sick! • Deviance lies within the abnormal individual • Criminals are born bad – anatomical, physiological or genetic abnormalities • Cesare Lombroso • Atavism – evolutionary throwback • Stigmata – physical characteristics • Solution to crime – treat using medical, chemical, or surgical procedures or incapacitation via:  permanent incarceration or capital punishment 4.)  Psychological Theory  • Human behavior is determined not by free choice but factors beyond the individual’s control – people  who are deviant/criminal are sic
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