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University of Guelph
SOC 1500
Andrew Mac Dougall

Chapter 1 Hannah GreenCriminal Justice System the complete institutional process of decision making from the initial investigation or arrest by police to the eventual release of the offender and his or her reentry into society the various sequential criminal justice stages through which the offender passes police courts corrections Intimate Violencea form of violent behaviour that occurs in a context of familiarity such as wifechild abuseCriminologythe scientific study of nature extent cause and control of criminal behaviour Criminologistone who brings objectivity and method to the study of crime and its consequences Although the terms criminology and criminal justice may seem similar they have major differences Criminologists explain the etiology origin extent and nature of crime in society Criminal Justice scholars describe and analyze the work of the police courts and correctional facilities and how to design effective methods of crime control Deviant Behaviourbehaviour that departs from the social norm but which doesnt always warrant legal sanction Decriminalizationreducing the penalty for a criminal act but not actually legalizing it thClassical Criminology mid 18 centuryBasic Elements 1 In every society people have free will to choose criminal or lawful solutions to meet their needssettle their problems2 Criminal solutions may be more attractive than lawful ones because they usually require less work for a greater payoff3 Peoples choice of criminal solutions may be controlled by their fear of punishment4 The more severe certain and swift the punishment the better able it is to control criminal behaviour Utilitarianisma view that believes that the punishment of crime should be balanced and fair which underlies the belief in classical criminology that even criminal behaviour must be seen as purposeful and reasonable th19 Century Positivism The branch of social science that uses the scientific method of the natural sciences and suggests that human behaviour is a product of social biological psychological or economic forcesCesare Lombroso 18351909Theory offenders are born criminals who engage in repeated assault or theftrelated activities because they have inherited criminal traits that impel them into a life of crime Criminal Anthropology early efforts to discover a biological basis of crime through measurement of physical and mental processes associated with Cesare Lombroso and the biological positivists Atavistic Anomalies Traits according to Lombroso the physical characteristics of born criminals that indicate they are throwbacks to animalprimitive people Sociological Criminology LAJ QueteletBelgian mathematician who began the cartographic school of criminology The first social scientist to use objective mathematical techniques to investigate the influence of social factors such as season climate sex and age Emile Durkheim 18581917one of the founders of sociology and a significant contributor to criminology According to Durkheims vision of social positivism crime is normal because it has existed in every age in both poverty and prosperity Crime is an integral part
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