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SOC 2010
Scott Brandon

2. Discuss the role of Natives in Canada. What are the legal statuses of various native groups? What are the definitional problems with each native category? How are native- based membership codes problematic? What are the social problems faced by native Canadians? What can help explain such problems? What role did residential schools and other displacement strategies play in the loss of identity for native populations? Use examples from lectures and readings in your answer. Role of Natives in Society: Legal statuses of various native groups:  Section 35 of the CONSTITUTION ACT of 1982 defines "the aboriginal peoples of Canada" as the INDIAN, INUIT and MÉTIS peoples.  three groups do not share equal rights  The federal government determines Indian status under its own rules, which no longer exclude women marrying non-Indians  Métis: The term refers to Aboriginal people of mixed First Nation and European ancestry who identify themselves as Métis people, as distinct from First Nations people, Inuit or non-Aboriginal people. The Métis have a unique culture that draws on their diverse ancestral origins, such as Scottish, French, Ojibway and Cree.  Indian: The term "Indian" is narrowly defined by the Indian Act. Indian peoples are one of three groups of people recognized as one of Canada's Aboriginal peoples in the Constitution Act, 1982. There are three legal definitions that apply to Indians in Canada: Status Indians, Non-status Indians and Treaty Indians  Inuit: An Aboriginal people in northern Canada, who live above the tree line in the Northwest Territories, and in Northern Quebec and Labrador. The word means "people" in the Inuit language - Inuktitut. The singular of Inuit is Inuk.  Honour Acres: In Treaty Land Entitlement, honour acres refers to the amount of acres that a First Nation was entitled to in previous agreements (such as the 1976 Treaty Land Entitlement Agreement) that have been honoured in the subsequent 1991Treaty Land Entitlement Agreement if the 1992 formula provided acreage of a lesser amount.  Aboriginal rights: Rights that some Aboriginal peoples of Canada hold as a result of their ancestors' long-standing use and occupancy of the land, e.g., to hunt, trap and fish on ancestral lands. Legally, the existence of specific Aboriginal rights are determined on a case-by-case basis. What are the social problems faced by native Canadians?  over-represented as offenders in the Canadian criminal justice system  Poverty, ill health, educational failure, family violence and other problems reinforce one another. To break the circle of disadvantage – where family violence leads to educational failure, which leads to poverty, which leads to ill health and back to violence – all these conditions must be tackled together, not piecemeal.  Once Aboriginal people were allowed off reserves, many came to larger urban centres in
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