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Midterm 1 Review.docx

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University of Guelph
SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

MEDIUM ANSWER – 2 QUESTIONS – 5 MARKS EACH What are the functions of deviance? - increase social solidarity - determine moral boundaries - test societies boundaries - reduces societal tensions What is the difference between objective and subjective? - objective is a common characteristic – people recognize deviance when they see it. - Subjective is not a common characteristic – someone must tell us that a certain something is deviant. Define social constructionism. What are the levels of social construction? - Social constructionism is the perspective proposing that social characteristics are creations of a particular society at a particular point in history. - sociocultural – beliefs, values, ideologies - institutional – structures of society like gov’t - interactional – interactions with people influence the way we think and act - individual – own identities, concept of self Expand on Merton’s Anomie and Strain theory. - Merton extended Durkheim’s strain theory. He suggested the anomie meant goals emphasized more than means, and that strain was caused a normative social order creates unequal access to legitimate means. - Merton drew up a typology of different responses to goal attainment: o Conformity (accepting cultural values) o Innovation (choosing to achieve in an illegal or deviant fashion) o Ritualism (scaling down of cultural goals and abiding by the norms) o Retreatism (rejection of goals and means) o Rebellion (creating new goals and means) Expand on Agnew’s General Strain theory. - Deviance was caused by strain and negative affects. - Strain combined with anger and high depression caused internal deviance (eg. purging). - Strain combined with anger and low depression caused external deviance (eg. crime) - Agnew’s strategies to reduce deviance: o Eliminate strains conducive to crime o Remove individuals from strains o Equip individuals with skills to avoid strain Expand on Syke’s and Matza’s neutralization theory. - deviance is rationalized by techniques of neutralization. o Denial of responsibility- it’s not my fault this town sucks o Denial of injury – drug users o Denial of victim – they deserved it o Condemnation or the condemners o Appealing to higher loyalties – god told me to Expand on Social Bonds Theory. - Hirschi’s social bonds theory suggested the social bonds restrain most of us. o Attachment – to parents, social agents o Commitment – conformity o Involvement – in activities o Belief – values, morals MULTIPLE CHOICE – 20 QUESTIONS - .5 MARKS EACH What are the 3 S’s? - Sin (middle ages) - Sick (medical treatment) - Selected (certain lifestyle) What are the ABC’s of deviance? - Attitudes (beliefs) - behaviours (outward actions) - conditions (ascribed or achieved) What is social constructionism? - The perspective proposing that social characteristics are creations of a particular society at a particular time in history What are the steps in the deviance dance? - the participants in this dance each take certain steps in order to move the dance in the direction they desire What is formal control and informal control? - informal social control is interacting with people – smile, frown, tease, agree with, etc. - formal social control is processing at some type of an organization or institutional level What is negative deviance and positive deviance? - negative deviance is under-conformity or non-conformity that is negatively evaluated (i.e. privacy = intrusion of that) - positive deviance is over conformity (i.e. loyalty = extra loyal towards group) What is rate busting? - rate busting is a negative reaction to over-conformity – “geek phenomenon” What is deviance admiration? - deviance admiration is under-conformity that is positively evaluated Define mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity. - mechanical solidarity = before industrialism – society has bonded together by likeness to conform - organic solidarity = with industrialism -
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