MEDIUM ANSWER – 2 QUESTIONS – 5 MARKS EACH
What are the functions of deviance?
- increase social solidarity
- determine moral boundaries
- test societies boundaries
- reduces societal tensions
What is the difference between objective and subjective?
- objective is a common characteristic – people recognize deviance when they
- Subjective is not a common characteristic – someone must tell us that a
certain something is deviant.
Define social constructionism. What are the levels of social construction?
- Social constructionism is the perspective proposing that social
characteristics are creations of a particular society at a particular point in
- sociocultural – beliefs, values, ideologies
- institutional – structures of society like gov’t
- interactional – interactions with people influence the way we think and act
- individual – own identities, concept of self
Expand on Merton’s Anomie and Strain theory.
- Merton extended Durkheim’s strain theory. He suggested the anomie meant
goals emphasized more than means, and that strain was caused a normative
social order creates unequal access to legitimate means.
- Merton drew up a typology of different responses to goal attainment:
o Conformity (accepting cultural values)
o Innovation (choosing to achieve in an illegal or deviant fashion)
o Ritualism (scaling down of cultural goals and abiding by the norms)
o Retreatism (rejection of goals and means)
o Rebellion (creating new goals and means)
Expand on Agnew’s General Strain theory.
- Deviance was caused by strain and negative affects.
- Strain combined with anger and high depression caused internal deviance
- Strain combined with anger and low depression caused external deviance
- Agnew’s strategies to reduce deviance:
o Eliminate strains conducive to crime
o Remove individuals from strains
o Equip individuals with skills to avoid strain
Expand on Syke’s and Matza’s neutralization theory.
- deviance is rationalized by techniques of neutralization.
o Denial of responsibility- it’s not my fault this town sucks o Denial of injury – drug users
o Denial of victim – they deserved it
o Condemnation or the condemners
o Appealing to higher loyalties – god told me to
Expand on Social Bonds Theory.
- Hirschi’s social bonds theory suggested the social bonds restrain most of us.
o Attachment – to parents, social agents
o Commitment – conformity
o Involvement – in activities
o Belief – values, morals
MULTIPLE CHOICE – 20 QUESTIONS - .5 MARKS EACH
What are the 3 S’s?
- Sin (middle ages)
- Sick (medical treatment)
- Selected (certain lifestyle)
What are the ABC’s of deviance?
- Attitudes (beliefs)
- behaviours (outward actions)
- conditions (ascribed or achieved)
What is social constructionism?
- The perspective proposing that social characteristics are creations of a
particular society at a particular time in history
What are the steps in the deviance dance?
- the participants in this dance each take certain steps in order to move the
dance in the direction they desire
What is formal control and informal control?
- informal social control is interacting with people – smile, frown, tease, agree
- formal social control is processing at some type of an organization or
What is negative deviance and positive deviance?
- negative deviance is under-conformity or non-conformity that is negatively
evaluated (i.e. privacy = intrusion of that)
- positive deviance is over conformity (i.e. loyalty = extra loyal towards group)
What is rate busting?
- rate busting is a negative reaction to over-conformity – “geek phenomenon” What is deviance admiration?
- deviance admiration is under-conformity that is positively evaluated
Define mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity.
- mechanical solidarity = before industrialism – society has bonded together
by likeness to conform
- organic solidarity = with industrialism -