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Midterm

SOC 2070 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Body Piercing, Deinstitutionalisation, Medicalization


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2070
Professor
Linda Hunter
Study Guide
Midterm

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Midterm Two Review
Loner
- solitary in interacting with others but keep attitudes and behaviours a secret
- anorexics, bulimics, self-injurers
Colleagues
- face-to-face relationships with others like themselves but do not need their
cooperation to engage in activities
- homeless, con artists
Peers
- engage in behaviours with others like themselves but have only minimal
division of labour
- neighbourhood gangs (everyone is at the same level except possibly a leader)
Crew
- 3-12 persons who band together to engage in more sophisticated deviant
acts with larger monetary payoffs like theft or smuggling
Formal Organizations
- larger than crews and extending over time and space
- may involve transnational links drug cartels
White-Collar Crime
- directly related to people in a position who abuse financial, organizational or
political power
Occupational Crime
- pursed by persons acting on their own behalf
- included employees at all levels of organizations who may steal from their
companies
Organizational Crime
- crime committed with the support of a legitimate formal organization and
designed to advance the goals of the firm or the agency
Miller Women in Gangs
- a lot more female members recently
- women gain a status and social life, and even some protection from the
hazards of street life can also exchange that for a new set of dangers and
violence
- delinquent lifestyles are associated with an increased risk of victimization
- research on gang violence indicates that the primary targets of this violence
are other gang members
- members should be taught, able to fight, engage in criminal activities, be loyal
to the group and be willing to put oneself out there

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- initiation involves either taking a fixed number of blows to the head and/or
chest or being beat in by members for a given duration
- typically lead by males
- women have fewer expectations in gangs
o two types of crime mentioned most frequently as off-limits for girls
were drug sales and drive-by shootings
- young women also had second route to status by their connection as sisters,
girlfriends
o second route maintains gender inequality in gangs but decreases the
risk of victimization
- many girls viewed as sexually promiscuous and weak, and not “true”
members
Troubling and Troubled Youth
- troubling youth primarily a threat to others and to society
- troubled youth primarily a threat to themselves
- increase in youth crime between 1960 and 1990 (other facts changing in
policing, admin. Practices, etc. stats decreasing year after year since the
1990s
- moral panics concept popularized by Cohen media exaggeration distorts
the magnitude of events
- five elements of moral panic
o heightened concern
o hostility toward the offending group (us vs. them)
o certain level of consensus that there is a real threat
o disproportionality (the attention five to the phenomenon is far
greater than the level of objective threat that phenomenon presents)
o volatility (they erupt suddenly and then may just as suddenly
disappear)
- how and why of gangs
o status frustration theory
lower-class boys, if unable to live up the middle-class
measuring rod, would join with other similar boys to form
gangs
o differential opportunity
nature of the illegitimate opportunities present in the
community determines the nature of gang behaviour
- factors influencing gang involvement
o family indicators
excessive parental controls
low parental nurturance
abuse/neglect
o community indicators
high crime rate
high population turnover
gang presence
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o personal indicators
low self-control
low motivation
truancy
o school indicators
negative school environment
low expectations
inadequate funding
Film “Harm’s Way”
- I will punch somebody out but I will not kick them when they are knocked
down.” – tough exterior, rough life at home, exposed to violence daily, inner-
emotions kick in, significant others are a huge affect
Appearance and Deviance
- extreme underweight anorexia
- nervosa
o at least 15% loss of body weight
o 5% of young women
- young men muscle dysmorphia is more common than anorexia
o “bigorexia”
o obsession with weightlifting
Causation
- anorexia
o ego-psychological theories
o controlling and rigid family
parents emphasize conformity and value achievement
strongly attached to parents
o hormone defects
o social norms slim bodies regarded as the most worthy and attractive
Merton and Anomie
- average female fashion mode = 20% thinner than healthy
- gap between cultural ideals and real world possibility
o conformity = acceptance of norms
o innovation = rejection of norms and new appearance rules
o rebellion = rejection of norms and rebellion against
McLorg and Taub
- - dieters are conformists in adherence to cultural norms of thinness
- diet for cosmetic rather than for health
- anorexics and bulimics are also conformists in their strong commitment to
other conventional norms and goals: excel at school, work honor societies,
etc.
- primary deviance:
o norm violations that do not affect person’s performance of social roles
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