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Midterm Two Review.docx

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SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

Midterm Two Review Loner - solitary in interacting with others but keep attitudes and behaviours a secret - anorexics, bulimics, self-injurers Colleagues - face-to-face relationships with others like themselves but do not need their cooperation to engage in activities - homeless, con artists Peers - engage in behaviours with others like themselves but have only minimal division of labour - neighbourhood gangs (everyone is at the same level except possibly a leader) Crew - 3-12 persons who band together to engage in more sophisticated deviant acts with larger monetary payoffs like theft or smuggling Formal Organizations - larger than crews and extending over time and space - may involve transnational links – drug cartels White-Collar Crime - directly related to people in a position who abuse financial, organizational or political power Occupational Crime - pursed by persons acting on their own behalf - included employees at all levels of organizations who may steal from their companies Organizational Crime - crime committed with the support of a legitimate formal organization and designed to advance the goals of the firm or the agency Miller – Women in Gangs - a lot more female members recently - women gain a status and social life, and even some protection from the hazards of street life – can also exchange that for a new set of dangers and violence - delinquent lifestyles are associated with an increased risk of victimization - research on gang violence indicates that the primary targets of this violence are other gang members - members should be taught, able to fight, engage in criminal activities, be loyal to the group and be willing to put oneself out there - initiation involves either taking a fixed number of blows to the head and/or chest or being beat in by members for a given duration - typically lead by males - women have fewer expectations in gangs o two types of crime mentioned most frequently as off-limits for girls were drug sales and drive-by shootings - young women also had second route to status by their connection as sisters, girlfriends o second route maintains gender inequality in gangs but decreases the risk of victimization - many girls viewed as sexually promiscuous and weak, and not “true” members Troubling and Troubled Youth - troubling youth – primarily a threat to others and to society - troubled youth – primarily a threat to themselves - increase in youth crime between 1960 and 1990 (other facts changing in policing, admin. Practices, etc. – stats decreasing year after year since the 1990s - moral panics – concept popularized by Cohen – media exaggeration distorts the magnitude of events - five elements of moral panic o heightened concern o hostility toward the offending group (us vs. them) o certain level of consensus that there is a real threat o disproportionality (the attention five to the phenomenon is far greater than the level of objective threat that phenomenon presents) o volatility (they erupt suddenly and then may just as suddenly disappear) - how and why of gangs o status frustration theory  lower-class boys, if unable to live up the middle-class measuring rod, would join with other similar boys to form gangs o differential opportunity  nature of the illegitimate opportunities present in the community determines the nature of gang behaviour - factors influencing gang involvement o family indicators  excessive parental controls  low parental nurturance  abuse/neglect o community indicators  high crime rate  high population turnover  gang presence o personal indicators  low self-control  low motivation  truancy o school indicators  negative school environment  low expectations  inadequate funding Film – “Harm’s Way” - I will punch somebody out but I will not kick them when they are knocked down.” – tough exterior, rough life at home, exposed to violence daily, inner- emotions kick in, significant others are a huge affect Appearance and Deviance - extreme underweight – anorexia - nervosa o at least 15% loss of body weight o 5% of young women - young men – muscle dysmorphia is more common than anorexia o “bigorexia” o obsession with weightlifting Causation - anorexia o ego-psychological theories o controlling and rigid family  parents emphasize conformity and value achievement – strongly attached to parents o hormone defects o social norms – slim bodies regarded as the most worthy and attractive Merton and Anomie - average female fashion mode = 20% thinner than healthy - gap between cultural ideals and real world possibility o conformity = acceptance of norms o innovation = rejection of norms and new appearance rules o rebellion = rejection of norms and rebellion against McLorg and Taub - - dieters are conformists in adherence to cultural norms of thinness - diet for cosmetic rather than for health - anorexics and bulimics are also conformists in their strong commitment to other conventional norms and goals: excel at school, work honor societies, etc. - primary deviance: o norm violations that do not affect person’s performance of social roles o do not consider themselves sick – it goes unrecognized o with slimmess came more self-respect and a feeling of superiority over unsuccessful dieters - secondary deviance: o gradually family and friends or medical personnel label respondents as anorexic or bulimic o not anorexic enough or not skinny enough to be given an anorexic or bulimic label o admit to the problem Body Modification, Body Projects and Appearance - camouflaging = normative processes o clothing, hairstyle, makeup - extending = overcome physical limitations o glasses, contacts - adapting = removing or repairing o weight loss, hair removal - designing = reconstruction o plastic surgery, body piercing, tattooing - from an objective point of view = characteristics of the person! - From a subjective point of view = characteristics of society! - Straightedge tattoos  statement against hedonism and self-indulgence Mark – presentation Guest speaker - tattoos and piercings o a lot more accept now o 24% of adults have at least one tattoo and 15% have at least one piercing o high school students = 8% have at least one tattoo and 21% want one - piercings o can’t be sterilized o no minimum age guidelines o 17% of adults received tattoos under the age of 18 and regret it Stigma and Mental Health - mental disorders are deviant in that they are unexpected - mental illnesses result from an interaction between social stresses and other predisposing factors that are psychological, chemical, physiological, or genetic - alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with significant distress and impaired functioning - Canada – Who has mental disorders? o 20% of adults have a mental disorder o 80% of adults known someone with a mental disorder - women – common mental disorders are depression and anxiety - common for men – antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse di
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