SOC 2070 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Body Piercing, Deinstitutionalisation, Medicalization

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Midterm Two Review
Loner
- solitary in interacting with others but keep attitudes and behaviours a secret
- anorexics, bulimics, self-injurers
Colleagues
- face-to-face relationships with others like themselves but do not need their
cooperation to engage in activities
- homeless, con artists
Peers
- engage in behaviours with others like themselves but have only minimal
division of labour
- neighbourhood gangs (everyone is at the same level except possibly a leader)
Crew
- 3-12 persons who band together to engage in more sophisticated deviant
acts with larger monetary payoffs like theft or smuggling
Formal Organizations
- larger than crews and extending over time and space
- may involve transnational links drug cartels
White-Collar Crime
- directly related to people in a position who abuse financial, organizational or
political power
Occupational Crime
- pursed by persons acting on their own behalf
- included employees at all levels of organizations who may steal from their
companies
Organizational Crime
- crime committed with the support of a legitimate formal organization and
designed to advance the goals of the firm or the agency
Miller Women in Gangs
- a lot more female members recently
- women gain a status and social life, and even some protection from the
hazards of street life can also exchange that for a new set of dangers and
violence
- delinquent lifestyles are associated with an increased risk of victimization
- research on gang violence indicates that the primary targets of this violence
are other gang members
- members should be taught, able to fight, engage in criminal activities, be loyal
to the group and be willing to put oneself out there
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- initiation involves either taking a fixed number of blows to the head and/or
chest or being beat in by members for a given duration
- typically lead by males
- women have fewer expectations in gangs
o two types of crime mentioned most frequently as off-limits for girls
were drug sales and drive-by shootings
- young women also had second route to status by their connection as sisters,
girlfriends
o second route maintains gender inequality in gangs but decreases the
risk of victimization
- many girls viewed as sexually promiscuous and weak, and not “true”
members
Troubling and Troubled Youth
- troubling youth primarily a threat to others and to society
- troubled youth primarily a threat to themselves
- increase in youth crime between 1960 and 1990 (other facts changing in
policing, admin. Practices, etc. stats decreasing year after year since the
1990s
- moral panics concept popularized by Cohen media exaggeration distorts
the magnitude of events
- five elements of moral panic
o heightened concern
o hostility toward the offending group (us vs. them)
o certain level of consensus that there is a real threat
o disproportionality (the attention five to the phenomenon is far
greater than the level of objective threat that phenomenon presents)
o volatility (they erupt suddenly and then may just as suddenly
disappear)
- how and why of gangs
o status frustration theory
lower-class boys, if unable to live up the middle-class
measuring rod, would join with other similar boys to form
gangs
o differential opportunity
nature of the illegitimate opportunities present in the
community determines the nature of gang behaviour
- factors influencing gang involvement
o family indicators
excessive parental controls
low parental nurturance
abuse/neglect
o community indicators
high crime rate
high population turnover
gang presence
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o personal indicators
low self-control
low motivation
truancy
o school indicators
negative school environment
low expectations
inadequate funding
Film “Harm’s Way”
- I will punch somebody out but I will not kick them when they are knocked
down.” – tough exterior, rough life at home, exposed to violence daily, inner-
emotions kick in, significant others are a huge affect
Appearance and Deviance
- extreme underweight anorexia
- nervosa
o at least 15% loss of body weight
o 5% of young women
- young men muscle dysmorphia is more common than anorexia
o “bigorexia”
o obsession with weightlifting
Causation
- anorexia
o ego-psychological theories
o controlling and rigid family
parents emphasize conformity and value achievement
strongly attached to parents
o hormone defects
o social norms slim bodies regarded as the most worthy and attractive
Merton and Anomie
- average female fashion mode = 20% thinner than healthy
- gap between cultural ideals and real world possibility
o conformity = acceptance of norms
o innovation = rejection of norms and new appearance rules
o rebellion = rejection of norms and rebellion against
McLorg and Taub
- - dieters are conformists in adherence to cultural norms of thinness
- diet for cosmetic rather than for health
- anorexics and bulimics are also conformists in their strong commitment to
other conventional norms and goals: excel at school, work honor societies,
etc.
- primary deviance:
o norm violations that do not affect person’s performance of social roles
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Document Summary

Midterm two review solitary in interacting with others but keep attitudes and behaviours a secret. Colleagues face-to-face relationships with others like themselves but do not need their cooperation to engage in activities. Engage in behaviours with others like themselves but have only minimal division of labour. Neighbourhood gangs (everyone is at the same level except possibly a leader) 3-12 persons who band together to engage in more sophisticated deviant acts with larger monetary payoffs like theft or smuggling. Formal organizations larger than crews and extending over time and space. May involve transnational links drug cartels. Directly related to people in a position who abuse financial, organizational or political power. Pursed by persons acting on their own behalf included employees at all levels of organizations who may steal from their companies. Organizational crime crime committed with the support of a legitimate formal organization and designed to advance the goals of the firm or the agency.

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