SOC FINAL NOTES.docx

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2070
Professor
Page:
of 19
4/16/2013 10:25:00 AM
POSITIVIST THEORIES:
Functionalist Theories
Durkheim‟s Anomie Theory
Merton‟s Strain Theory
Cloward and Ohlin‟s Differential Opportunity Theory
Agnew‟s General Strain Theory
Cohen‟s Status Frustration Theory
Learning Theories
Differential Association Theory
Neutralization Theory
Social Learning Theory
Social Control Theories
Social Bonds Theory
General Theory of Crime
ADLER
The Biological and Psychological Perspective
The Structural Perspective
The Cultural Perspective
The Interactionist Perspective
Early 20th century = biological theories of crime
Mid-20th century = social theories of criminal/non-criminal deviance
Sociology of Deviance utilizes
General sociological theories (conflict)
Specifically criminological theories (strain)
Interdisciplinary theories (feminist)
Objective interests:
Study the deviant act, person, or trait
Positivist theories
Subjective interests:
Study social construction & social typing
Interpretive and critical theories
FUNCTIONALIST THEORIES
Durkheim‟s ANOMIE theory
o Structural Functionalist society is a moral phenomenon
o Manifest and latent functions
o Certain level of deviance is functional:
Tests society‟s boundaries, reduces societal tensions,
increases social solidarity, helps determine moral
boundaries
o Mechanical solidarity people bonded together by their
similarities
o Organic solidarity people bonded together by differences
that created interdependence
o Rapid change creates anomie (normlessness)
o Social disintegration and anomie were more prevalent in
modern
Merton‟s STRAIN theory
o Structure of society contributes to deviance
o Institutionalized goals and legitimate means
o Unequal access to those legitimate opportunities
o Anomie = goals emphasized more than means
o Strain = normative social order creates unequal access to
legitimate means
o Culture dictates success goals for all but institutional access
limited to certain classes
o Social structures exert a definite pressure upon some persons
in the society to engage in non conforming rather than
conforming conduct
o In contemporary North America, conflict between the culture
and the social and economic structure. Our culture dictates
success goals for citizens whereas institutional access is
limited to middle and upper strata
o 5 modes of adaptation to strain: CONFORMITY, INNOVATION,
RITUALISM, RETREATISM, REBELLION
Cloward and Ohlin‟s DIFFERENTIAL OPPORTUNITY theory
o Legitimate opportunities + illegitimate opportunities =
Deviance VS conformity
o Nature of opportunities determines type of gang (criminal
gang, retreatist gang, conflict gang). They suggest not all
disadvantaged have the same opportunity for participating in
illegitimate activities
o 3 Types of deviant opportunities: Criminal (arise from access
to deviant subcultures), Conflict (attract persons with
propensity for violence), Retreatist (persons who seek to
withdraw from society)
o Such opportunities effected by neighborhoods, ethnicity, glass
ceiling
Agnew‟s GENERAL STRAIN theory
o Multiple causes of strain.
Strain + negative affect = deviance
Strain + anger + high depression = internalized
deviance (purging)
Strain + anger + low depression = externalized
deviance (crime)
Albert Cohen‟s STATUS FRUSTRATION theory
o Subcultural theory. Middle-class measuring rod
characteristic of school system
o Lower-socio-economic create oppositional standards of
behaviour and engage in: reaction formation join with
similar others
o Gang is the solution for less advantaged youth. Merton
stressed “success” while Cohen stressed “status”
Criticisms: conservative bias, androcentric bias, deviance as a
lower-socio-economic class phenomenon