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Social Deviance Final Exam Review.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2070
Professor
Norman Dubeski
Semester
Fall

Description
SOC 2070 Final Exam Review  Theorists/ Theories  Key Terms  Key Matters Chapter 9: Sexual Deviance Homosexuality -The Old Testament punished homosexuality -Legalized in Canada in 1968 -Legalized in the US in 2003 (some states still had “some anti-sodomy” laws) -Some couples could be jailed for oral sex under sodomy laws in 11 states -Legal definition included: • Touching anus with penis or tongue • Touching penis or vagina with mouth or breasts • Touching breasts with mouth (except babies) -Was seen as a mental illness until 1973 -Allowed to openly serve in Canadian military in 1992 and in 2011 in the United States -Only United Church and Episcopalians have gay marriage -Informal discrimination becomes person’s master status -Kinsey claimed 10% of those he surveyed had homosexual behaviour -Survey included most ex-institutionalized people -1994 “Sex inAmerica” study found in a random survey most people were conventional • I.e. nonadulterous People who saw themselves as homosexual (or had gay sex in the last year) • Men: 2.8% • Women: 1.4% Is Sex Constructed? • Social constructionists believe sex is a product of socialization, and emphasize the variety of customs • Sexual customs vary, but uncommon customs tend to either remain rare: celibacy, homosexuality, polygamy • Sexual customs have common elements (what is attractive usually reflects what appears healthier and wealthier in the environment) • Anyone who says drive an essentialist, seeing sex as a force that us much the same around the world Paraphilia’s and Fetishes Paraphilia: Atype of behaviour Fetish: Material, place or thing (leather or rubber) -Men more into them than women, so women sex workers are the ones who get paid to perform Types of Paraphilia’s: Pedophilia: Sex with children Hebephile: Sex with adolescents Exhibitionism: Streaking and flashing Voyeurism: Group sex, furry and plushie Cross-dressing: People who dress up as other sex (mostly men today) Sado-masochism and whipping: The submissive partner is in control Bestiality and zoophilia: Fowl play Vampirism: Drinking of blood during sex Frottage: Rubbing up against strangers New Opinion’s From Technology -Birth control frees women from unwanted pregnancy -Some Middle Eastern women get surgery to restore the hymens to convince future husband they’re virgins -African women get cosmetic surgery to restore genitals damaged by female circumcision Wheeler’s Dimensions -What causes sex act to be deviant? -Who, what, how, when, where Constructionism vs. Essentialism -Extreme SC: We can as a society dispense with categories and traditions like fixed sexual orientation, fidelity, and jealousy -Mead went to Samoa to gather evidence to support SC said Samaons were promiscuous without jealousy or guilt Social Constructionist: Sex serves social mores Essentialism: Social mores serve innate sexual drives Sexual Evolutionary Psychology -Evolutionary psychologists (essentialists) say all species need to pass on their genes -Adultery may be functional and jealously instinctive -Man with lots of partners becomes for attractive – genes in high demand -Child big investment for women, making her selective -Men need to spread DNA, so they compete for status -Women’s notions of attractiveness may change during menstrual cycle Essentialists believe: -Men are more distressed by physical cheating -Women more distressed by emotional cheating Sex Worker Perspectives Moralistic: Sex workers are immoral Social Worker: Sex working is wrong, BUT individual sex workers can be saved with outside intervention Marxism: Problem caused by capitalism Functionalism: Benefits for society Radical Feminism:All sex work is patriarchal exploitation – dupes or helpless victims Pro-Sex Feminism: Public must be educated to end demand for sex work Sexual Libertarianism: Sex workers are free agents Sexual Radicalism: Sex workers need to be empowered Two Prostitution Studies by Miller vs. Muecke -Both studied prostitution in Thailand, but made opposite conclusions -Jody Miller, femimist, studies partial oppression, to show how it is oppressive -Explores how women in Thai were exploited, money from sex tourism ending up in hands of pimps -Majorie Muecke takes EMIC approach (Ethnographic, Compatible with Symbolic Interactionism) -Look at their meaning, not outsiders -Thai women feel traditional obligation to support family -Buddhist beliefs play a role in facilitating protection (do it to support family) Article Overviews 1. “AFeminist Overview of Pornography” by Canada’s Wendy McElroy -Individualist or civil-libertarianism -Radical: Rejects equality, wants to throw heterosexual society, sees all women as victims -Liberal: Upholds equality in general, wants to reduce perceived social problems and work within that system -Individualist or Libertarian Feminism: Pro-sex for individual freedom and equality -McElroy argues that all women must be able to choose for themselves about porn -Censorship wrong, porn has benefits -Not aware of woman’s desires when talking about censorship -Woman should decide about own body and entertainment 2. “Horror Under the Hajab” by S.Brown -Aqsa Parvez murdered by family in honour killing (becoming too Westernized) -Honour killing done for entire family (sometimes vote is taken) -Toronto Star blames Canadian intolerance – depriving ethnic group 3. “Will the Guilty Verdict in Canadian “honour killing” trial be a Turning Point for Justice?” by Phyllis Chesler -Author born inAfganistan, like M. Shafia -Father, second wife, and son killed 3 daughters and first wife -Honour killings among Sikhs, Hindus, and Moslems (91%) -Perpetrators see themselves as victims -Dr. Salim Mansur suggests multiculturalism is a racist policy with dangers for immigrant women Chapter 10: Cognitive Deviance -Labelling and rejecting others for their beliefs -Creationism in science, atheism of racism -Anti-semitism -Paranormal and pseudo-science Types of Reactions Informal social rejection- Getting names Purging: Made a nonperson Blacklisted: Occupational Shunning: Jehova witness Excommunication: Catholic Church Fatwa and death threats: Islam Censorship or denial or entrance visa: Political Funding withdrawn, tensure denied:Academic Vertical Ladder and Horizontal Mosaic Horizontal Dimension: People in different areas have different beliefs Vertical Dimension: Certain beliefs promoted by powerful educational establishment -People of opposing beliefs demonize each other to make each other look deviant • I.e. Drug users seeing non drug users as deviant Social Basis of Belief Systems Karl Marx: Materialist/ economic determinism Max Weber: “ElectiveAffinity” of ideas and groups Identity Needs: Common today (sense of acceptance or superiority) Cults -Offer a sense of belonging -Suicide cults exist (Heaven’s Gate) -Practice shunning and brainwashing Scientific Cranks 1. Isolated from practice of science 2. Reject traditional scientific assumptions 3. Feel marginalized because their beliefs are right 4. Yet crave acceptance from the scientific community Cognitive Deviants Ignaz Semmelweis & Galileo were both cognitive deviants -Ignaz Semmelweis deviant for saying doctors washed hands -Galileo deviant for saying earth went around sun Pseudo-Science Parapsychology: Study of paranormal phenomena that uses appearance of science but not the context -Parapsychologists determined to prove the existence of the paranormal Debunking -Disproving paranormal claimed when confronted with failure • I.e. Psychics will give excuses (this was the first time it didn’t work) Article Overviews 1. “Fallacies and Frustrations” -True believers have defences to defend their beliefs -Twisting definitions -Demand their claims be “disproven” rather than “proven” 2. “Fakers and Innocents” -James Randi (magician) disproves psychic claims because he can replicate any that work -Offers $1 million -Participants believe in their powers and are confident -When they fail they give excuses Witch Craze -People panicked and accused ne
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