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SOC 2070 Midterm 2 Summary.docx

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SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

SOC 2070 Midterm 2 Summary POWERPOINT WEEK 5 Best & Luckenbill: Social Organization of Deviance • It is the relationship among those labelled deviant. • Depends on # of members, task specialization, stratification, and type of authority. • A. Loners o Solitary and keep attitudes and behaviours secret. o Websites – forms of community; provide latent functions.  Transmit technical and ideological know-how.  Bring together persons.  Global.  Provide space for deviance to grow. • B. Colleagues o Face-to-face relationships with others; don’t need their coop to engage in activities. o Possibility of membership in deviant subculture or counterculture. • C. Peers o Engage in behaviours with others like them; minimal division of labour. • D. Crew o Band together to engage in sophisticated deviant acts. o Complex division of labour – training and socialization. • E. Formal Organizations o Larger than crews; extend over time and space. o May involve transnational links to other similar groups. o Ethnically homogenous, employ violence, vertically/horizontally stratified and corrupt law enforcement. • F. White Collar Crime o Persons/groups in position to abuse financial, organizational, or political power. o Divided into two sections: o 1. Occupational crime  Persons acting on their own behalf.  Ex. Employees at all levels; partake in embezzlement and computer crimes. o 2. Organizational crime  Support of formal organization to advance goals of firm or agency.  Includes unsafe products. Miller: Gender and Victimization Risk among Young Women in Gangs • Gangs are social groups organized around delinquency. • They have shown to escalate youth’s involvement in crime/violence. • Primary targets are other gang members. • A. Gangs as Protection and Risk o Suggested that being a gang member is source of protection. o Females offered gendered sense of protection in a mostly male group. o Males could retaliate against violence acts to girls in gang. o Members should be tough, able to fight and engage, be loyal, and willing to put oneself at risk. • B. Gender and Status, Crime and Victimization o Status hierarchies are male dominated. o Young women have greater flexibility in gang involvement. o Young women have second route to status through connections as sisters, girlfriends, etc. o Second route is gender inequality within gang but decreases risk of victimization for women. • C. Girls’ Devaluation and Victimization o Some crimes off-limits for girls. o This perpetuated devaluation of female members as less significant. o Such devaluation could lead to mistreatment and victimization within own gang. o Women viewed as sexually available. o Devaluation of women in gang was sexual in nature. o Girls viewed as sexually promiscuous, weak, and not true members. o Chesney-Lind Research  Nasty Girl phenomenon: sensational images and misrepresentation of female crime with negative repercussions.  Women engage in violence for different reasons than men. Troubling and Troubled Youth • Troubling youth = threat to others and to society. • Troubled youth = threat to themselves. • Various definitions of youth. Youth Crime • Youth crime perceived as: o Out of control o Expanding at an alarming rate. • Patterns of youth crime different from the popular images. • Gap between patterns and perceptions due to moral panics. Elements of moral panic: o Heightened concern o Hostility o Consensus about threat o Disproportionality o Volatility • Cause of youth crime: theoretical explanations and empirical research. • Empirical research: intelligence, school performance, parents, peers. Youth and Gangs • Dominance of traditional criminology o Positivist theoretical explanations. o Interactionist and critical theories. o Gangs as identity and resistance for marginalized youth. o Varying understandings of gang membership • Theoretical integration: social bonds + conflict + labelling • Empirical research: o Family indicators o Community indicators o Personal indicators o School indicators Harm’s Way Documentary • Features people whose lives have been changed by youth violence. • Explore issues and influences that are affecting violent behaviour of our youth. • Looks at effects of early childhood experiences, the media, our consumer culture and changing structures. POWERPOINT WEEK 6 Appearance and Deviance • Varies over time and place. • Provoke labelling and stigmatization. • Create communities and subcultures. Scientific Standards • Extreme underweight – anorexia nervosa o Weight phobia o Body image disturbances o Amenorrhea o Food issues • Young men o Muscle dysmorphia more common than anorexia. o “bigorexia” o Weightlifting obsession o Anxiety/mood disorders; distorted eating attitudes; steroid use Merton/Anomie: gap between cultural ideals and real world possibilities. • Conformity – acceptance of norms. • Innovation – rejection of norms and new appearance rules. • Rebellion – establishing new appearance norms Social Control of Weight Issues • Commercial industry; ex. Pills and powders • Medicalization; ex. Prescriptions and surgery • Governments; ex. Tax deductions • Communities; ex. Recreational facilities McLorg/Taub: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia • A. Data derived from self-help group o BANISH: Bulimics/Anorexics in Self-Help • B. Conforming Behaviour o Dieting figures prominently among anorexics and bulimics. o Dieters in adherence to cultural norms of thinness. o Diet for cosmetic reasons rather than health. o Anorexics and bulimics also have strong commitment to other conventional norms and goals. o Over conformity appears pervasive in lives and families of anorexics and bulimics. • C. Primary Deviance o Norm violations that do not affect person’s performance of social roles. o Do not consider themselves to have an eating disorder. • D. Secondary deviance o Gradually family/friends/personnel labeled respondents anorexic or bulimic. o Internalize these identities. o Admitted to a problem. Other thoughts on Eating Disorders • Finding your place in the world plays a part. • Independence, autonomous, control. • Peer interaction. • Health consequences Appearance and Punk Culture • Break appearance rules; form communities of like-minded individuals. • Subculture, unconventional. • Rebellious. • Counterculture movement of self-expression and protest. • Moral panics. Body Modification, Body Projects and Appearance • Lengthy history. o 5000 year old Iceman o Early Christian era – religious affiliation o European colonization – primitives o Late 18 /early 19 century – carnivals o 1950s – working-class masculinity and subcultures Types of Body Projects • Camouflaging = normative processes • Extending = overcome physical limitations • Adapting = removing or repairing • Redesigning = reconstruction • Depends on location along objective-subjective continuum o Objective end: characteristics of person o Subjective end: self and identity formation Body Modification • Pervasiveness within pop culture • College undergrads o 1/5 have tattoos o ½ have body piercings • Modified bodies tell us characteristics of the individual. o Psychological and behavioural, and risk o Motivation  Aesthetic: beauty, fashion, art  Identity formation in youth  Protest against parents/generation. Women and Tattoos • Association with masculinity. • Growing prevalence of female tattooing. • Construction of gendered self o Established femininity  Increase sexual appeal and enhance femininity. o Resistant femininity  Contradict hegemonic ideals. o Negotiated femininity  Source of liberation. Straightedge Tattoos • Ideological message: statement against hedonism and self-indulgence. o Symbols of lifestyle declaration, pacification, and indictment. • Means of control over one’s body. Deviance and Pop Culture • Interest in mass media – popularity of communication and media courses • Advertisements – reflection of cultural values. • Visual images/cultural texts – organize ways we understand gender relations • Images can reflect and shape our perceptions of reality. • Learning aggressive attitudes and behaviours through media violence. • Desensitized toward real world violence. • Afraid of being victimized. • Accessibility. • Culture. • Community standards shift. • Money and ratings. Killing us Softly 4 • How advertising traffics in distorted and destructive ideals of femininity. • Stunning pattern of damaging gender stereotypes. • Challenges new generation of students to take advertising seriously. POWERPOINT WEEK 7 Mental Disorders • Result from interaction between social stresses and other predisposing factors that are psychological, chemical, physiological, or genetic. • Leading social/health problem in Canada. • Alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with distress and impaired functioning. Rates • Equal rates for women/men. • Different types: o Women: depression, anxiety o Men: antisocial personality, substance abuse, and conduct disorders • Affects all socioeconomic strata of society. • Lower socioeconomic status o Social causation hypothesis: more life stresses/fewer resources contribute to mental disorders. o Social selection hypothesis: those with mental disorders fall into lower socioeconomic strata. • Adolescents/young adults o Biology + identity formation + stress Costs • Individual and families o Education o Employment o Income o Family instability o Physical illness • Societal: Canadian economy o Absence from work o Family member’s absence to provide full time care o Inability to be employed o Decreased productivity on the job Lack of Treatment • 2/3 with mental disorders remain untreated, due to: o Lack of services o Perceptions of treatment as inadequate o Discomfort with self-disclosure in treatment o Neglect within families/communities o Fear of stigmatization Stigmatization • Negative consequences o Awareness of stigmatization of mental illness = self-stigma  Internalization of the label mentally ill  Less likely to seek treatment Policies and Programs • Two paradigms: • Disease paradigm o Address symptoms of mental illness o Treatment has changed • Discrimination paradigm o Try to resist stigmatization of mental illness o Human rights legislation o Medical programs o Public education o Self help groups o Government lobbying for improved funding and better services Deinstitutionalizatio
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