SOC 2070 Midterm 2 Summary
POWERPOINT WEEK 5
Best & Luckenbill: Social Organization of Deviance
• It is the relationship among those labelled deviant.
• Depends on # of members, task specialization, stratification, and type of authority.
• A. Loners
o Solitary and keep attitudes and behaviours secret.
o Websites – forms of community; provide latent functions.
Transmit technical and ideological know-how.
Bring together persons.
Provide space for deviance to grow.
• B. Colleagues
o Face-to-face relationships with others; don’t need their coop to engage in activities.
o Possibility of membership in deviant subculture or counterculture.
• C. Peers
o Engage in behaviours with others like them; minimal division of labour.
• D. Crew
o Band together to engage in sophisticated deviant acts.
o Complex division of labour – training and socialization.
• E. Formal Organizations
o Larger than crews; extend over time and space.
o May involve transnational links to other similar groups.
o Ethnically homogenous, employ violence, vertically/horizontally stratified and corrupt law
• F. White Collar Crime
o Persons/groups in position to abuse financial, organizational, or political power.
o Divided into two sections:
o 1. Occupational crime
Persons acting on their own behalf.
Ex. Employees at all levels; partake in embezzlement and computer crimes.
o 2. Organizational crime
Support of formal organization to advance goals of firm or agency.
Includes unsafe products.
Miller: Gender and Victimization Risk among Young Women in Gangs
• Gangs are social groups organized around delinquency.
• They have shown to escalate youth’s involvement in crime/violence.
• Primary targets are other gang members.
• A. Gangs as Protection and Risk
o Suggested that being a gang member is source of protection.
o Females offered gendered sense of protection in a mostly male group.
o Males could retaliate against violence acts to girls in gang.
o Members should be tough, able to fight and engage, be loyal, and willing to put oneself at risk.
• B. Gender and Status, Crime and Victimization
o Status hierarchies are male dominated.
o Young women have greater flexibility in gang involvement.
o Young women have second route to status through connections as sisters, girlfriends, etc.
o Second route is gender inequality within gang but decreases risk of victimization for women.
• C. Girls’ Devaluation and Victimization
o Some crimes off-limits for girls. o This perpetuated devaluation of female members as less significant.
o Such devaluation could lead to mistreatment and victimization within own gang.
o Women viewed as sexually available.
o Devaluation of women in gang was sexual in nature.
o Girls viewed as sexually promiscuous, weak, and not true members.
o Chesney-Lind Research
Nasty Girl phenomenon: sensational images and misrepresentation of female crime with
Women engage in violence for different reasons than men.
Troubling and Troubled Youth
• Troubling youth = threat to others and to society.
• Troubled youth = threat to themselves.
• Various definitions of youth.
• Youth crime perceived as:
o Out of control
o Expanding at an alarming rate.
• Patterns of youth crime different from the popular images.
• Gap between patterns and perceptions due to moral panics. Elements of moral panic:
o Heightened concern
o Consensus about threat
• Cause of youth crime: theoretical explanations and empirical research.
• Empirical research: intelligence, school performance, parents, peers.
Youth and Gangs
• Dominance of traditional criminology
o Positivist theoretical explanations.
o Interactionist and critical theories.
o Gangs as identity and resistance for marginalized youth.
o Varying understandings of gang membership
• Theoretical integration: social bonds + conflict + labelling
• Empirical research:
o Family indicators
o Community indicators
o Personal indicators
o School indicators
Harm’s Way Documentary
• Features people whose lives have been changed by youth violence.
• Explore issues and influences that are affecting violent behaviour of our youth.
• Looks at effects of early childhood experiences, the media, our consumer culture and changing
structures. POWERPOINT WEEK 6
Appearance and Deviance
• Varies over time and place.
• Provoke labelling and stigmatization.
• Create communities and subcultures.
• Extreme underweight – anorexia nervosa
o Weight phobia
o Body image disturbances
o Food issues
• Young men
o Muscle dysmorphia more common than anorexia.
o Weightlifting obsession
o Anxiety/mood disorders; distorted eating attitudes; steroid use
Merton/Anomie: gap between cultural ideals and real world possibilities.
• Conformity – acceptance of norms.
• Innovation – rejection of norms and new appearance rules.
• Rebellion – establishing new appearance norms
Social Control of Weight Issues
• Commercial industry; ex. Pills and powders
• Medicalization; ex. Prescriptions and surgery
• Governments; ex. Tax deductions
• Communities; ex. Recreational facilities
McLorg/Taub: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia
• A. Data derived from self-help group
o BANISH: Bulimics/Anorexics in Self-Help
• B. Conforming Behaviour
o Dieting figures prominently among anorexics and bulimics.
o Dieters in adherence to cultural norms of thinness.
o Diet for cosmetic reasons rather than health.
o Anorexics and bulimics also have strong commitment to other conventional norms and goals.
o Over conformity appears pervasive in lives and families of anorexics and bulimics.
• C. Primary Deviance
o Norm violations that do not affect person’s performance of social roles.
o Do not consider themselves to have an eating disorder.
• D. Secondary deviance
o Gradually family/friends/personnel labeled respondents anorexic or bulimic.
o Internalize these identities.
o Admitted to a problem.
Other thoughts on Eating Disorders
• Finding your place in the world plays a part.
• Independence, autonomous, control. • Peer interaction.
• Health consequences
Appearance and Punk Culture
• Break appearance rules; form communities of like-minded individuals.
• Subculture, unconventional.
• Counterculture movement of self-expression and protest.
• Moral panics.
Body Modification, Body Projects and Appearance
• Lengthy history.
o 5000 year old Iceman
o Early Christian era – religious affiliation
o European colonization – primitives
o Late 18 /early 19 century – carnivals
o 1950s – working-class masculinity and subcultures
Types of Body Projects
• Camouflaging = normative processes
• Extending = overcome physical limitations
• Adapting = removing or repairing
• Redesigning = reconstruction
• Depends on location along objective-subjective continuum
o Objective end: characteristics of person
o Subjective end: self and identity formation
• Pervasiveness within pop culture
• College undergrads
o 1/5 have tattoos
o ½ have body piercings
• Modified bodies tell us characteristics of the individual.
o Psychological and behavioural, and risk
Aesthetic: beauty, fashion, art
Identity formation in youth
Protest against parents/generation.
Women and Tattoos
• Association with masculinity.
• Growing prevalence of female tattooing.
• Construction of gendered self
o Established femininity
Increase sexual appeal and enhance femininity.
o Resistant femininity
Contradict hegemonic ideals.
o Negotiated femininity
Source of liberation. Straightedge Tattoos
• Ideological message: statement against hedonism and self-indulgence.
o Symbols of lifestyle declaration, pacification, and indictment.
• Means of control over one’s body.
Deviance and Pop Culture
• Interest in mass media – popularity of communication and media courses
• Advertisements – reflection of cultural values.
• Visual images/cultural texts – organize ways we understand gender relations
• Images can reflect and shape our perceptions of reality.
• Learning aggressive attitudes and behaviours through media violence.
• Desensitized toward real world violence.
• Afraid of being victimized.
• Community standards shift.
• Money and ratings.
Killing us Softly 4
• How advertising traffics in distorted and destructive ideals of femininity.
• Stunning pattern of damaging gender stereotypes.
• Challenges new generation of students to take advertising seriously. POWERPOINT WEEK 7
• Result from interaction between social stresses and other predisposing factors that are psychological,
chemical, physiological, or genetic.
• Leading social/health problem in Canada.
• Alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with distress and impaired functioning.
• Equal rates for women/men.
• Different types:
o Women: depression, anxiety
o Men: antisocial personality, substance abuse, and conduct disorders
• Affects all socioeconomic strata of society.
• Lower socioeconomic status
o Social causation hypothesis: more life stresses/fewer resources contribute to mental disorders.
o Social selection hypothesis: those with mental disorders fall into lower socioeconomic strata.
• Adolescents/young adults
o Biology + identity formation + stress
• Individual and families
o Family instability
o Physical illness
• Societal: Canadian economy
o Absence from work
o Family member’s absence to provide full time care
o Inability to be employed
o Decreased productivity on the job
Lack of Treatment
• 2/3 with mental disorders remain untreated, due to:
o Lack of services
o Perceptions of treatment as inadequate
o Discomfort with self-disclosure in treatment
o Neglect within families/communities
o Fear of stigmatization
• Negative consequences
o Awareness of stigmatization of mental illness = self-stigma
Internalization of the label mentally ill
Less likely to seek treatment
Policies and Programs
• Two paradigms:
• Disease paradigm
o Address symptoms of mental illness
o Treatment has changed
• Discrimination paradigm o Try to resist stigmatization of mental illness
o Human rights legislation
o Medical programs
o Public education
o Self help groups
o Government lobbying for improved funding and better services