Study Guides (248,069)
Canada (121,279)
Sociology (577)
SOC 2070 (69)
Midterm

SOC 2070 Midterm 2 Summary.docx

12 Pages
176 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2070
Professor
Linda Hunter
Semester
Winter

Description
SOC 2070 Midterm 2 Summary POWERPOINT WEEK 5 Best & Luckenbill: Social Organization of Deviance • It is the relationship among those labelled deviant. • Depends on # of members, task specialization, stratification, and type of authority. • A. Loners o Solitary and keep attitudes and behaviours secret. o Websites – forms of community; provide latent functions.  Transmit technical and ideological know-how.  Bring together persons.  Global.  Provide space for deviance to grow. • B. Colleagues o Face-to-face relationships with others; don’t need their coop to engage in activities. o Possibility of membership in deviant subculture or counterculture. • C. Peers o Engage in behaviours with others like them; minimal division of labour. • D. Crew o Band together to engage in sophisticated deviant acts. o Complex division of labour – training and socialization. • E. Formal Organizations o Larger than crews; extend over time and space. o May involve transnational links to other similar groups. o Ethnically homogenous, employ violence, vertically/horizontally stratified and corrupt law enforcement. • F. White Collar Crime o Persons/groups in position to abuse financial, organizational, or political power. o Divided into two sections: o 1. Occupational crime  Persons acting on their own behalf.  Ex. Employees at all levels; partake in embezzlement and computer crimes. o 2. Organizational crime  Support of formal organization to advance goals of firm or agency.  Includes unsafe products. Miller: Gender and Victimization Risk among Young Women in Gangs • Gangs are social groups organized around delinquency. • They have shown to escalate youth’s involvement in crime/violence. • Primary targets are other gang members. • A. Gangs as Protection and Risk o Suggested that being a gang member is source of protection. o Females offered gendered sense of protection in a mostly male group. o Males could retaliate against violence acts to girls in gang. o Members should be tough, able to fight and engage, be loyal, and willing to put oneself at risk. • B. Gender and Status, Crime and Victimization o Status hierarchies are male dominated. o Young women have greater flexibility in gang involvement. o Young women have second route to status through connections as sisters, girlfriends, etc. o Second route is gender inequality within gang but decreases risk of victimization for women. • C. Girls’ Devaluation and Victimization o Some crimes off-limits for girls. o This perpetuated devaluation of female members as less significant. o Such devaluation could lead to mistreatment and victimization within own gang. o Women viewed as sexually available. o Devaluation of women in gang was sexual in nature. o Girls viewed as sexually promiscuous, weak, and not true members. o Chesney-Lind Research  Nasty Girl phenomenon: sensational images and misrepresentation of female crime with negative repercussions.  Women engage in violence for different reasons than men. Troubling and Troubled Youth • Troubling youth = threat to others and to society. • Troubled youth = threat to themselves. • Various definitions of youth. Youth Crime • Youth crime perceived as: o Out of control o Expanding at an alarming rate. • Patterns of youth crime different from the popular images. • Gap between patterns and perceptions due to moral panics. Elements of moral panic: o Heightened concern o Hostility o Consensus about threat o Disproportionality o Volatility • Cause of youth crime: theoretical explanations and empirical research. • Empirical research: intelligence, school performance, parents, peers. Youth and Gangs • Dominance of traditional criminology o Positivist theoretical explanations. o Interactionist and critical theories. o Gangs as identity and resistance for marginalized youth. o Varying understandings of gang membership • Theoretical integration: social bonds + conflict + labelling • Empirical research: o Family indicators o Community indicators o Personal indicators o School indicators Harm’s Way Documentary • Features people whose lives have been changed by youth violence. • Explore issues and influences that are affecting violent behaviour of our youth. • Looks at effects of early childhood experiences, the media, our consumer culture and changing structures. POWERPOINT WEEK 6 Appearance and Deviance • Varies over time and place. • Provoke labelling and stigmatization. • Create communities and subcultures. Scientific Standards • Extreme underweight – anorexia nervosa o Weight phobia o Body image disturbances o Amenorrhea o Food issues • Young men o Muscle dysmorphia more common than anorexia. o “bigorexia” o Weightlifting obsession o Anxiety/mood disorders; distorted eating attitudes; steroid use Merton/Anomie: gap between cultural ideals and real world possibilities. • Conformity – acceptance of norms. • Innovation – rejection of norms and new appearance rules. • Rebellion – establishing new appearance norms Social Control of Weight Issues • Commercial industry; ex. Pills and powders • Medicalization; ex. Prescriptions and surgery • Governments; ex. Tax deductions • Communities; ex. Recreational facilities McLorg/Taub: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia • A. Data derived from self-help group o BANISH: Bulimics/Anorexics in Self-Help • B. Conforming Behaviour o Dieting figures prominently among anorexics and bulimics. o Dieters in adherence to cultural norms of thinness. o Diet for cosmetic reasons rather than health. o Anorexics and bulimics also have strong commitment to other conventional norms and goals. o Over conformity appears pervasive in lives and families of anorexics and bulimics. • C. Primary Deviance o Norm violations that do not affect person’s performance of social roles. o Do not consider themselves to have an eating disorder. • D. Secondary deviance o Gradually family/friends/personnel labeled respondents anorexic or bulimic. o Internalize these identities. o Admitted to a problem. Other thoughts on Eating Disorders • Finding your place in the world plays a part. • Independence, autonomous, control. • Peer interaction. • Health consequences Appearance and Punk Culture • Break appearance rules; form communities of like-minded individuals. • Subculture, unconventional. • Rebellious. • Counterculture movement of self-expression and protest. • Moral panics. Body Modification, Body Projects and Appearance • Lengthy history. o 5000 year old Iceman o Early Christian era – religious affiliation o European colonization – primitives o Late 18 /early 19 century – carnivals o 1950s – working-class masculinity and subcultures Types of Body Projects • Camouflaging = normative processes • Extending = overcome physical limitations • Adapting = removing or repairing • Redesigning = reconstruction • Depends on location along objective-subjective continuum o Objective end: characteristics of person o Subjective end: self and identity formation Body Modification • Pervasiveness within pop culture • College undergrads o 1/5 have tattoos o ½ have body piercings • Modified bodies tell us characteristics of the individual. o Psychological and behavioural, and risk o Motivation  Aesthetic: beauty, fashion, art  Identity formation in youth  Protest against parents/generation. Women and Tattoos • Association with masculinity. • Growing prevalence of female tattooing. • Construction of gendered self o Established femininity  Increase sexual appeal and enhance femininity. o Resistant femininity  Contradict hegemonic ideals. o Negotiated femininity  Source of liberation. Straightedge Tattoos • Ideological message: statement against hedonism and self-indulgence. o Symbols of lifestyle declaration, pacification, and indictment. • Means of control over one’s body. Deviance and Pop Culture • Interest in mass media – popularity of communication and media courses • Advertisements – reflection of cultural values. • Visual images/cultural texts – organize ways we understand gender relations • Images can reflect and shape our perceptions of reality. • Learning aggressive attitudes and behaviours through media violence. • Desensitized toward real world violence. • Afraid of being victimized. • Accessibility. • Culture. • Community standards shift. • Money and ratings. Killing us Softly 4 • How advertising traffics in distorted and destructive ideals of femininity. • Stunning pattern of damaging gender stereotypes. • Challenges new generation of students to take advertising seriously. POWERPOINT WEEK 7 Mental Disorders • Result from interaction between social stresses and other predisposing factors that are psychological, chemical, physiological, or genetic. • Leading social/health problem in Canada. • Alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with distress and impaired functioning. Rates • Equal rates for women/men. • Different types: o Women: depression, anxiety o Men: antisocial personality, substance abuse, and conduct disorders • Affects all socioeconomic strata of society. • Lower socioeconomic status o Social causation hypothesis: more life stresses/fewer resources contribute to mental disorders. o Social selection hypothesis: those with mental disorders fall into lower socioeconomic strata. • Adolescents/young adults o Biology + identity formation + stress Costs • Individual and families o Education o Employment o Income o Family instability o Physical illness • Societal: Canadian economy o Absence from work o Family member’s absence to provide full time care o Inability to be employed o Decreased productivity on the job Lack of Treatment • 2/3 with mental disorders remain untreated, due to: o Lack of services o Perceptions of treatment as inadequate o Discomfort with self-disclosure in treatment o Neglect within families/communities o Fear of stigmatization Stigmatization • Negative consequences o Awareness of stigmatization of mental illness = self-stigma  Internalization of the label mentally ill  Less likely to seek treatment Policies and Programs • Two paradigms: • Disease paradigm o Address symptoms of mental illness o Treatment has changed • Discrimination paradigm o Try to resist stigmatization of mental illness o Human rights legislation o Medical programs o Public education o Self help groups o Government lobbying for improved funding and better services Deinstitutionalizatio
More Less

Related notes for SOC 2070

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit