Courseware reading: “Justice Delayed” by Rachel Smolkin
-indicted for allegedly raping a stripper... Duke’s lacrosse team
-on April 18,2006, Seligmann and teammate were arrested on charges of first-degree rape, first-degree sex offense and
-Michael B. Nifong was the district attorney who pursued them even as evidence of their innocence mounted and his case
-the media deserve a reckoning too, a remonstrance for coverage that too eagerly embraced the inflammatory statements
of a prosecutor in the midst of a tough election campaign
-Murphy followed Nifong’s hate
-Evidence vegan to trickle out and pour out and finally become conclusive that it didn't have, that there was no rape
Courseware reading: : “Opportunities and Decisions: Interactional Dynamics in Robbery and Burglary Groups”
-50 male robbers and burglars who committed their crimes with others
-offenders construct opportunity by improvising situational interpretations, communicating expectations and negotiating
-decisions in groups are incremental, contextual situation and affected significantly by variation in members’influence
-applied an interactionist approach reaving some common patterns of interpersonal dynamics rooted in street activities,
that contribute to situational construction of criminal opportunity
-interaction can reduce the appeal of law abidance to group participants and make developing criminal opportunity
difficult to refuse.
-many report that they do not plan their crimes or only a few minutes
-they ignore consequences
-some loiter theft scenes, pawn goods using same identification, robbed victims they knew and allowed themselves to get
-Often correlated to a drug bing, partying lifestyle
-3 general styles of interaction that made illicit opportunity apparent and readily accessible
-Most groups made criminal sense of a scene by referencing group identity, improvisational communicative
signals, or conspicuously attractive targets
-these styles of decision making are fluid and overlapping all three considerations play a part in the
decisions of many groups
Courseware reading: “Trends in Cannabis, Cocaine, and Ecstasy Use among OntarioAdults, 1977-2003”
-in 1003, 39% of Ontario adults used cannabis during their lifetime and 13% used it during the 12 months before the
-1984- 1991 there was a downward movement, stability between 1991 and 1997 and then an upward movement since
-between 1997 and 2003, the past year use of cannabis increased among males 11% -16%, females 7% -10%, 18-29 years
old from 21% to 34%
-2003 rates are the highest ever posted for these 2 age groups (40-49 and 50-64)
-weak increase trend of more regular use among cannabis users
- the percentage of past year cannabis users who reported daily use was 8% in 1997, 9% in 1999, 11% in 2001
and 14% in 2003 - There is no recent changes of uncontrolled use among cannabis users
- the percentage of past year users who reported that they tried to cut down but failed was 7% in 2000, 4% in 2001 and
9% in 2003.. these estimates are within sampling error and do not differ significantly
- 2003, 7% of Ontario adults used cocaine at least once in their lifetime, and 2% used it during the 12 months before the
- Changes in cocaine use are not dramatic
- Between 1984 and 2003, lifetime cocaine use varies between 3% and 7%, and past year use varies from less than 1% to
- cocaine use has remained relatively stable over the past two decades
- the only notable subgroup change occurred among 18 to 29 year olds, whose use peaked at 6% in 1989, declined over
the 1990s and has remained at about 4% since 2000
- In 2003, 4% of Ontario adults reported use of ecstasy in their lifetime, and less than 1% reported use during the 12
months before the survey
- ecstasy use remained relatively stable between 2000 and 20004 with lifetime use varying between 3% to 4% and past
year use varying from less that 1% to 2%
- no subgroup trends were evident
Courseware readings: “Academic Freedom as a Shield for Anti-Semitism” by Mitchell Bard and “ The Tuskegee
Timeline” by the Center for Disease Control
- The Jewish community accepts that this is a matter of free speech and is afraid to do anything that might suggest an
effort to stifle what is actually hate speech
- rarely see attacks on other minorities on college campuses
- Jews are considered fair game
- most of the faculty teaching about the middle east today are potently hostile toward Israel- and it is the professors who
shape the campus environment and the minds of students
- the issue is whether this type of speech should be given the cover of academic freedom and granted legitimacy by the
university through funding, publicity, or use of facilities
- Few people would claim that a conference in which anti-black sentiments were expressed would be protected by
academic freedom. The same is true for criticism against women
- Teachers have the power to impose their views on students
- universities responds to economic incentives Chapter 6: Violence
-gangs believe that violence is what is done to a member of their own group, while if an intergroup conflict breaks out
and they kill others in a different group, they rarely see it as violence.
-Labeling an act as violence is not solely dependent on the harm inflicted but on what the audiences consider illegitimate,
unjustified, inexcusable motives.
-every society has prohibition on murder
-only positivists and essentialists would have something to say about it, not constructionists
The Social Construction of Murder
-by definition: murder is a deviant; criminal killing.
-To say that murder is universally a crime is like saying a dog is a mammal. Since that is how murder is defined,
murder is always and by definition deviant, as well as a crime. Saying that murder universally is a crime is a
definitional not a descriptive or empirical statement
-murder is always and everywhere considered, wrong, deviant, and a crime, that is how it is defined. But is the
taking of human life always and everywhere a crime? OF COURSE NOT
-Murder is the unauthorized, illegitimate, and criminal form of killing.
-Murder is subjective, and particular killings belong in certain categories of deviant acts
-Kill is a term used to describe a life being taken, regardless of the motive or circumstances.
-David Killed but he did not Murder Goliath (it was a righteous killing)
-All societies accept, tolerate, authorize and even encourage certain sorts of killing
-what is or is not murder is socially constructed
-most americans do not believe that embryos are full-fledged humans, so the
population does not regard this as killing a human being, therefore to pro-
choice, abortion is not murder. (this idea is socially constructed ... to agree with
one of the 2 would be an essentialist way of doing so and viewing it as socially
constructed judgments that are in fact based on objective reality.
-FBI does not consider it murder
-justifiable homicide: killing that results from the dictates of a legal demand (police shooting a felon in the line of duty or
a citizen taking action against the felon)
-until the 1970s it was legal to shoot a fleeing suspect
-in switzerland and the netherlands acts of assisted suicides criminal or noncriminal are legal, though in the US
they are not. (except for Oregon)
-we should keep in mind how homicides are categorized and why. Abasic question we have to ask here is: What
sort of killings are judged as criminal and deviant?And which ones are tolerated, accepted, and condoned- not
considered criminal or deviant?
-these are issues constructions would deal with Murder: The Positivist’s Mission
-many killings are legally classified as murder and there is social patterning to illegal killings
-The FBI refers to criminal homicide as “murder and non-negligent manslaughter” and defines it as the willful killing of
one or more human beings by one or more othersAND NOT negligence, suicide or accident.
-[in this chapter the terms criminal homicide and murder are used interchangeably]
-High rate of murder in the 1930s because of poor medical care.
-Victims of violent incidents died in the streets, though they would be saved today.
-what would be aggravated assault today would have been murder back then
-Murder rates declined during WW2 because of the segment of population most likely to engage in violence were not in
the United States, but fighting war.
-in 1960, criminal homicide began to increase from 5 to 10 per 100 000 and stayed high during the 80s
-In late 90s it dropped
-Criminal homicide is a social construct and the actions are socially patterned.
-The willful taking of human life is not a random event; it follows a set of 11 sociological generalizations
1. The public and media image of murder is extremely distorted. The image of criminal homicide that is conveyed in the
news, television crime dramas, and murder mysteries, as well as the image most people have of the typical modal
murder, bears are loose relationship to the real thing due to the exaggerated role produced by the public and the
2. Most murders take place in the heat of the moment. Very few killings are planned or premeditated but can be through
explosive altercations or escalated interpersonal disputes
3. Most murders are justified by killers as a form of vindication, a way out of an intolerable situation, by obliterating or
defending themselves against hostile situations and are usually due to demand retaliation. Only through a violent
expression of rage can killers like this wipe away the disgrace of stigma, shame and humiliation.
1. Jack Katz: murder is often righteous slaughter
4. The more intimate the relationship, the greater the likelihood that one person will kill another. (only a 1/4 of deaths
are toward strangers
5. (extension of 4th generalization) Murderers and victims look remarkably alike.
6. (extension of 4 and 5) Murders then to be overwhelmingly interracial, meaning that blacks tend to kill blacks, and
whites tend to kill whites.
7. AfricanAmericans are both more likely to kill and to be victims of criminal homicide than whites are.
8. Murder is related to social class. It is typically committed by people toward the bottom of the SES ladder, that is men,
who are relatively uneducated or unemployed or have low prestige jobs.
9. Everywhere, men are much more likely to kill than women. In the United States, roughly nine out of ten killers are
men. (men tend to kill men, and women tend to kill men) (women are killed by men 90% of the time)
10. Rates of criminal homicide vary enormously from country to country, from one society to another
1. Guatemala, Colombia, Brazil, have extremely high rates of suicide.
2. High rates also inAfrican countries; Sierra Leone,Angola, and especially SouthAfrica
3. Murder tends to be rare inArab Muslim countries such as Egypt, Morocco, Kuwait, UnitedArab Emirates 4. murder is lower among fully industrialized countries of the world
11. In the Western world, violence, especially lethal violence, has dropped enormously since the MiddleAges
1. Mediaeval Europe homicide is 10 to 20 times higher than today
-Positivists take the constructed mature of murder for granted and examine criminal homicide as a consistent, coherent,
materially real form of behavior rather than a socially defined and judged phenomenon.
-FBI defines forcible rape as “carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will”. Statues regard any forced
penetration, of woman’s mouth, vagina or anus by a man’s penis as rape.
-Legally and by definition, forcible rape entails the use of violence, or the threat of violence thus it is always defined by
-Men can be raped by men, and it does take place frequently in prison, but is far less often studied, and is less likely to be
taken seriously by the public.
-Male-to-male rape is not defined by the FBI as rape; hence, legally, it does not exist as rape.
- Rape is seen as a more violent than sexual act among (forcible may be distinguished with statutory rape or consensual
sex with an underaged female.)
-Rape is assault because it employs force, violence or the threat of violence
-what defines an act as rape is that it is nonconsensual, a sexual act forced on, or against, a woman, against her
-What defines or constitutes it as a rape is that it is, by definition and by its very nature, against the victim’s will- and
therefore violent, and therefore rape.
The social construction of rape
-[Diana Scully] the arguments that emphasize the violent and aggressive character of rape is often disclaim that sex plays
any part in rape at all.
-Just because it is said to be violent does not mean it cannot be other things as well.
-Scully says that rape can be sex in addition to being violence.
-for some men, violence is sexual
-For many men, rape is instrumental, to gain sexual access to otherwise unattainable women
-The social, cultural, group an individual conceptions vary as to just what constitutes rape.
-What rape is thought to be is partly a mater of definition. (Legal definition vs. Personal views on situations)
-judgement of rape is made my 3 crucial audiences: the general public, the criminal justice system, and victim’s of rape
-general public can be divided according to a spectrum or continuum; we have judgements that are inclusive or
-exclusive: help by rapists, any of whom believe, in effect, that rape does not exist, and that all or nearly
all charges of rape are false.
-in one study of convicted rapists, nearly a third said that they had sex with their victims but
denied that it was rape.As long as the victim survived physical injury, the men believed a rape
had not taken place
- inclusive: held my some radical, militant, lesbian feminist separatists, who believe that all intercourse
between men and women, however consensual it may appear on the surface, represents an assault, an
act of aggression, and invasion and violati on- rape
- men exercise power over women so not relationship can be freely chosen -moderately exclusive: tends to be held by sexual and sex and gender-role traditionalists and
-they believe that a woman’s place is in the home and that they should have a man to protect
them from advances of other men.
-does not accept the view that women should have freedom, especially sexual freedom
-“nice girls don’t get raped”
-This is a view held by the majority of the US population, unlike the 2 extreme views.
-MostAmericans, to a degree, will blame a woman for certain kinds of sexual attacks against
-They restart their notion of what rape is to a relatively narrow or exclusivistic set of acts
-Moderately inclusive: tend to be held by sexual and sex and gender-role liberals
-they believe that a woman has the right of sexual determination, the right to choose where and
with whom she wants to go thus she cannot be blamed for an attract against hers.
-If a woman makes it clear she is not interested in a man’s advances, and he persists, then he is
forcing himself on her, she is being coerced, the act takes place against her will, and it is a case
- Moderate inclusionists feel women should not have to be protected by a man to live a life free
of sexual assault.
-She has the same rights as the man
-many women each year are victims of coerced intercourse, they are raped, according the legal definition but not by the
criminal justice system
-Sexual violence inflicted against women is tolerated by the criminal justice system under certain circumstances.
-simple and aggravated rape ( associated with acquaintance and stranger rape)
-simple rape: forced sexual intercourse in which there is little overt, clear-cut violence (no weapon, no beating), there is
no single assailant, and he has some prior relationship with the victim
-Aggravated rape: serious, and is defined by over violence, or multiple assailants, or non prior relationship between
victim and assailant.
-Aggravated rape is more likely to be report to the police than simple sex and when simple rape it, it is often not
even recorded, and they do not usually go after it.
-Research indicates that the majority of women who are victims of forced intercourse do not see themselves as having
been raped! Any time a man coerces, forces, or threatens violence against a woman to have sex with her, it is rape.
-1 out of 7 woman forced into sex believe they have been raped
Explanations of Rape: The positivistApproach
-2006 NCVS estimates the number of rapes or sexual assaults to females age 12 and order is 272,000
-59% do not report rape to the police
-rates of reporting were higher when it was a stranger, armed, and when the victim is physically injured.
-The three major types or broad categories of theories of rape causation are individual, sociocultural and situation.
-individual explanations of rape are those that argue that some men have a higher tendency or proclivity to
sexually assault women that other do.
-Sociocultural explanations of rape are those that argue that the content of certain cultures or subcultures
influence men to be sexually aggressive toward women
-situational explanations are those that focus on factors that place women in vulnerable situations.Acertain
proportion of the men in those situations will sexually aggress against these women because the women are
available and there is nothing to prevent them from committing the act. -The most extreme form of the individual explanation of rape is the psychopathology theory. It hold that rapists are
disordered, mentally ill, or sick.
-this perspective cannot explain the actions of most rapists because most are normal
-the further from conventional male-female courtship a given rape is, the greater the likelihood than it
was motivated by psychopathology
-the more violent and brutal the rape, the greater the likelihood that a mental disorder comes into play
-Neil Malamuth demonstrated that rapists are different from non rapists by asking undergrad students to
fill out questionnaires and say whether there was some or no chance that they would rape a woman, if
they could get away with it. He then played fictional audiotapes of sexual encounters with violence.
Those who said yes were more likely to feel arousal
-these tapes were then played for those convicted of rape and apparently those who said
maybe/yes had similar patterns of arousal as those already incarcerated
-“some chance” of rape, men, were more likely to believe in rape myths (women enjoy rape,
women are asking for it) and are more likely to have admitted to actually use force women to
have intercourse with them
- Gottfredson and Hirschi agree that rapists are a particular type and support the situational or opportunity theory)
-general theory of crime argues that crime is a product of poor parental socialization, which leads to low self-control
-Hirschi and Gottfredson’s general theory of crime is an example of an individualistic explanation of rape.
-they argue that it is the early childhood experience of males growing up in an inadequate parental or supporting
only child-care environment that determines their likelihood of sexually aggressing against women.
-Their rape proclivity is an aspect or a feature of their more general tendency to grab, take, steal, exploit and
satisfy themselves at the expense of others regardless of the consequences.
-the gratification that they see as motivating the rapist is primarily sexual rather than political or ideological
-they do not seek to subdue or humiliate women, as feminists claim. Instead they correspond to one of
Seully’s rape categorizations - “seize what is not offered”
-They do this because they lack impulse control because their parents did not monitor or sanction
their deviant behavior when they were growing up
-Sociocultural theories argue that the norms, values, and beliefs held by the members of a given society, or social group,
circle, or category, are conductive to men raping women (men learn to rape in much the way that in our society, they
learn to play football or eat pizza
-according to this perspective, rape is conventional behavior.
-Sociocultural example is Sandy’s experiment on campuses rape-prone and rape-free in regards to fraternities and
the fight for equality and the impact found with so by arguing that the factor explaining sexual aggression by
men against women is the socialization process.
-Sociocultural explanation is not mutually exclusive or contradictory with the individual explanation
-in the vast majority of rapes , both views are not the only valid explanation and instead both operate
-feminist proponents of the sociocultural model argue that inAmerican society, rape is common because rape-positive
values are an essential component of American culture.
-rape is a political instrument for keeping women, servile, subservient, and submissive
-this theory has a flaw... many man in society do not rape
-You cannot explain a variable (some men rape and some don’t) with a constant (American society is sexist, and
hence encourages rape)
-situational theories argue that the key to rape is opportunity. Clearly, routine activities theory firs in here, to the extent
that a “motivated offender” (the potential rapist), a “suitable target” and the “absence of a capable guardian” are in
conjunction, rape is more likely to take place
-men are deterred by the cost of raping (arrest and social stigma) -Tedeschi and Felson argue that women who date a number of different en, and who spend a substantial amount
of time outside the home, especially at night, especially in cars, and especially in situations that are not
supervised or monitored are more likely to be rape victims that those who date no, or only one, man and spend
more time at home. (though being home is not always protection)
-blaming the victim
-blame is a moral concept, cause is a scientific or explanatory concept
-Sociocultural, individual and situational factors have to be taken into account to explain a phenomenon as complex as
rape. After summarizing the available literature as well as their own research, a team of psychologists presents a
perspective they refer to as the “interactional” model.
-It argues that for a male to commit an act of sexual aggression against a woman, several factors must converge in the
same man: (1) becoming sexually aroused at the sexual assault of women; (2) being angry or hostile toward women; (3)
holding attitudes that support violence against women; (4) engaging in impersonal, promiscuous sex.
-these factors, the authors say, “interact” with one another. When presented with an available opportunity, a male
who ranks high on a scale consisting of these four dimensions is substantially more likely to force a woman to
have sex than the male who ranks low on it.
- these factors, are regarded as proximate causes of sexual aggression against women. (they stand near, next to, or
immediately proper to the physical act of rape)
-they motivate and disinhibit some men to inflict sexual violence for aggressive actions against women.
-qualities such as power, risk-taking, toughness, dominance, aggressiveness.... masculine. For these men,
aggressive courtship and sexual conquest may be a critical component of being good at being a man. Men who
internalize these characteristics are more likely to be controlling and aggressive toward omen in sexual and non-
sexual situations and college fraternities facilitate much of the same socialization processes.
-Most people use the term “robbery”very loosely.
-To criminologists, robbery entails victim confrontation; it is a theft involving force, violence, or the threat of violence.
There is some controversy among criminologists as to whether robbery is a property crime or a crime of violence;
clearly it has some elements of both. It is the one crime that is both a property crime, since the perpetrator takes money
or goods from the victim, and a crime of violence since the perpetrator uses force, violence, or the threat of violence.
-4/10 of all robberies entail the use of firearms
-1/8 entails the use of a knife, and 4/10 are strong-arm or weaponless robberies
-most thieves prefer stealth and secrecy
-most do not like this because it is dangerous and high-risk
-1/4 of all robberies are cleared by arrest
-the more that is stolen, the greater the likelihood that the incident will be reported and commercial robberies are
almost always reported
-robbery is not a promising way to make a career because you get charged so much more than you usually make (10 000
-robbery may be a lucrative career for a small professional elite, but for the average robber, it represents a distinctly risky
and un-lucrative means of earning a decent income
-robbery is a big-city offense. The likelihood of being a victim of a robbery in a big city is stupendously greater than in a
small town or a rural area. In 2007, according to the FBI, the robbery rate in counties with no cities of any size was 16.4
-in cities with a population higher, robbery rates increased
-Since robbery is a crime that entails victim confrontation, the victim typically sees and can identify the perpetrator.
-In a smaller community, the likelihood of identification is vastly greater than in a larger one because big cities
-The two other offenses, both crimes of violence that entail victim confrontation- rape and aggravated assault-
also increase with community size, but not nearly so sharp
-major crimes do not increase with community increase -44% violent crimes, 16% property crimes
-8/10 cases include multiple offenders
-Hans Von Hentig argued that much of what victims do or are leads to their victimization; crime is a product of an
interaction between offender and victim
-Freudian psychology argued that victims yearned and were in some way responsible for their victimization. (blaming the
-current psychologists make better distinction between blame and cause. Victims may be selected by offenders in
part because of what they do or who they are, but they should not be blamed for the victimization.
-blame is a heavily value-laden term, whereas cause is a more objective, readily determinable sequence of events.
(younger girls get raped over older, they cannot be blamed but there is a cause)
-Males are twice as likely to be robbery victims
-older teens are the most likely while elderly are the least
-African american rate of being robbed is almost twice as high
-lower income persons are between for and five times more likely to be robbed
-robber is interesting for FBI because it is a better predictor of an offender’s overall rate of involvement in crime
-An offender who robs is highly likely to have previously engaged in a number of other types of offenses while someone
who engages in larceny theft or even burglary is significantly less likely to have engaged in other offenses.
-Robbery is a very powerful indicator or measure of someone's involvement in or commitment to criminal behavior; it is
a good predictor of future criminal activity.
-robbers usually threaten instead of actually hurt (injured in 33% of all robberies)
Who is the robber?
- the statistics on arrest complied by the Uniform Crime Reports paint the following portrait of the robber- at least, the
-he is overwhelmingly male- 90% of the time.
-Just over half of all arrests were black
-60% under the age of 25
-these statistics only represented arrested robbers. (those who do not get caught are likely to differ)
-the younger less experience robber is more likely to get caught
-4/10 offenders were 20 years or younger
-The portrait we received from the FBI’s figures on arrest and the characteristics as identified in victimization surveys is
that, relative to their numbers in the population, robbers tend to be young, male and black and overwhelmingly urban
- daring and poverty are important factors
-blacks are more urban
-1/4 of all whites live in central cities for african americans this is more than twice as high (50-60 percent)
-30% under the age of 20 for whites, wile 40% for blacks, so bigger chance of crime due to location and age. Social Deviance Week 6: Violent Crime
Crime and Deviance Overlap
- if a crime has no stigma attached, then criminal is not regarded as a deviant
- the label ex-con is a stigma, many victims of violent crime also feel trauma and shame and don’t want other people to
- much stigma for violent and primal crimes, but not for property and statutory crimes (i.e. gambling & trading)
- some kinds of criminals are seen as more deviant than others
- is force & coercion without consent
- we are inherently ambivalent about it, it is for both heroes and villains
- movies glamourize it, jargon normalizes it (collateral damage), and some wear military camouflage
- violence is usually towards others, but there is also self-harm: suicide, slashing
- men often describe it as gaining control, women as losing it
- theft with victim present and threat of harm
- very useful index crime
- more likely in urban areas because of anonymity
- less likely to be harmed if robber had gun but most likely to be killed! (Least likely to be harmed or killed if victim had
- most likely to be harmed if victim is defenseless but resists
- robbery victims less likely to know assailants then murder or assault victims
- if robbers & victims more likely Black, it is in part because Blacks are on average younger and more urban and
(possibly) live in areas with more gun control
- “street culture” upholds violent crime: robbery is seen as more macho than theft
- some robbers not deviant, like Robin Hood
- a lot of robbery is for drug money & fast living, though they say they “need money”
- Robbery can also be intrinsically pleasurable.
- robbers often prepare themselves: getting high, drinking, or listening to loud music ; to turn off fear and remorse
- robbery can lead to rape or felony murder - home invasion latest robbery trend
“Opportunities & Decisions” I
- burglary is a predatory crime of opportunity, spontaneous but a product of a series of decisions
- young men hanging out, then those with jobs go home
- remainder drink, smoke drugs, boast, show off criminal paraphernalia, those uncomfortable go home
- remainder agree they need money in a hurry
- somebody suggests burglary or to “go out and look for money.”—a keynote
- a burglary starts with opportunity, though not all members of group have openly agreed to participate
- they love the feeling that anything might happen—of feeling predatorial and impulsive
- authors call process as “incremental signaling”
- telling each other in stages what kind of guys they are and their intentions
- suggests burglary or to “go out and look for money.”—a keynote
- a burglary starts with opportunity, though not all members of group have openly agreed to participate
- they love the feeling that anything might happen—of feeling predatorial and impulsive
- authors call process as “incremental signaling”
- telling each other in stages what kind of guys they are and their intentions
Murder as a Social Construct
- usually does not include all killing:
executions, suicide, self-defense, abortion, euthanasia, war, accidents, police shootings
- only for a small minority (i.e. Buddhists, and Quakers) does it include all killing
- Sixth commandment is a condemnation of murder, not killing
- in Canada, there is NO right of self-defense: one is to use “reasonable force” or to flee (if you shoot an attacker dead,
- unlike in some states, where lethal force can be used as a first resort against intruders & assailants (often called “the
- a positivist looks at correlations and rates
- Goode lists generalizations
- murder rate has gone down (peaked in mid 70s, dropped since the 90s)
- media’s view of murder is sensationalist
- most are not premeditated but impulsive and confrontational
- most are justified by perpetrator
- intimates kill each other more than strangers
- murders and victims are homosocial (are similar)
- murder tends to be intraracial, not interracial (it depends on group proportions and is decreasing)
- African-Americans or Blacks are more likely to be both victims and perpetrators by a factor of four
- murderers are disproportionately of lower SES
- men commit 90% of murders
- men kill men, women kill men
- homicide rates vary by country, USAis 3 times higher than Canada,
- rates of violent crime have dropped historically since Middle Ages & Renaissance
Other Nifty Generalizations
- chance of surviving a murder attempt has gone up (calling 911, getting medical help)
- elderly have low rates of victimization but feel vulnerable for they are more likely to be victimized by strangers and the
- step-children more vulnerable - women become more vulnerable during pregnancy from partners and ex-partners
- both murderers and victims often intoxicated (explains escalation)
- in United States, Washington D.C. was the murder capital for 39 out of 40 years!
Rape and SexualAssault
- the traditional term is rape, today the legal term in Canada is sexual assault which is a broader term
- aggravated: violent or stranger-rape
- simple = less violent and acquaintance/date rape
- statutory rape: rape when consent was given but inapplicable (deception or age or mental infirmity)
- Canada recognized marital rape in Canada in 1983
How Safe Do You Feel?
- universities are covered with special lights and there are walk programs to protect women
- for stranger-rape, universities are among the safest places
- women students walk around with headphones blaring under glare of lights set up to protect them
- the greatest at risk groups include the mentally and physically challenged, the insane, homeless, prostitutes—and no one
puts up lights for them!
Stigma of Abuse
- rape is often a war crime to humiliate entire tribe, such as in European pogroms against Jews
- Terrorist groups known to rape a woman to make her into a suicide bomber
- rape victims often afraid to come forward
- people want to believe world is just, so ask, “What did she do?”
- defense cross-examination often harsh on plaintiff Any crime in her past or unusual behavior is fair game
-i.e. in cases of Kobe Bryant, William Kennedy Smith, IMF head
-abused men also silenced
-in prison interviews rapists will say whatever makes them look better or get better treatment: that rape is caused by
society, or that they didn’t enjoy it, blame substance use, or childhood problems
-Erich Goode & Diana Scully: the dominant belief that rape is about power/violence and not about sex glosses over that
for many rapists power/violence and sex may be indistinguishable or overlap
- when you let rapists speak freely, they use...
- techniques of neutralization (it wasn’t bad for her)
- justification (women are teases or gave consent)
- excuses (they were in a slump or drunk)
--rapists thus have narrow & exclusive definition of rape that preserves their self-image
Rape is always wrong, but socially constructed in what it refers to.
- traditionally seen as a property crime against men or against their family honor - in Pakistan, village elders ordered a boy’s sister raped as punishment for him talking to a woman outside of his
clan and caste
- in India, a Muslim village council ordered a man to marry his daughter-in-law victim as punishment
- such perceptions see main problem of rape is that it brings shame to the family or
Cause Versus Blame
- are different points out Richard Felson
- we must always distinguish between the two
- to say that some people are more vulnerable to assault does NOT mean they are guilty or wanted it
- neither does saying that a victim could have been more careful
- certain situations are more dangerous than others
- certain groups more likely to be targeted by predators—if they didn’t exist—others would be
- it is not women’s responsibility to hide or to take responsibility for men’s behavior
What is Consent?
- age of consent: consensual sex with a minor was once called statutory rape
- Canada’s age of consent raised to 16 from 14 with mitigation for less than 2 - 5 years in age difference
(often called a “Romeo & Juliet” provision)
- age 18 for when with a person in a position of trust
- age of consent for anal sex under Section 159 of CriminalAct is 18
- oral sex legalized in 1969 with same consent age
- in many states, boys have lower consent age than girls
- American federal law prohibits moving a minor under 18 across state lines for sexual purposes or using federal
- many factors influence age of consent (from economics to sexual inequality)
- is a woman raped if she gave consent while drunk?
--Yes claim conservatives and feminists
-but what if BOTH were drunk?
-or were of the same sex?
--or boy was younger?
-what if consent was established beforehand?
--can consent be taken back?
--should consent be written, or should the man prove woman’s sobriety? (Why does no one care if the woman was sober
and the man was drunk?)
--can a third party claim a person was raped even if she gave consent? (yes, for children, mentally handicapped, and
authority figures like doctors!)
Negotiation of Meaning
- Exchange Theory says boys and girls teach each other to combine sex and love
- radical feminists say all heterosexual intercourse is rape because patriarchy brainwashes all other women
- public wants to believe they themselves are safe, so ask, “What did SHE do?”
- public often made a distinction between a proper victim and an improper one: “What did she expect?”
- according to surveys, a lot of teenagers will say it is okay for a boy to insist on sex if he spent a lot of money on her—
but do not call that rape. - some college surveys find much different results asking, “Would you rape a woman?” versus, “Would you force sex on
a woman if you knew you could get away with it?”
- some members of both sexes may expect the guy to prove his feelings by being sexually aggressive.
- not all women see it positively if a guy does not pressure them for sex.
- many young people are so awkward about feelings and bodies they use alcohol to feel comfortable
Where do we get the facts?
Lowest figures for rape
--official crime statistics based onA) victim reports and B) preliminary investigation to “found” the crime
--random self-report surveys
--estimate that not all rapes are reported, a greater percentage of stranger rapes are reported than acquaintance rapes
Highest estimates cherry-pick data.
--Magazine self-report surveys
--those who want to find highest rates may combine categories: (sexual assault + attempted sexual assault + sexual
misconduct) multiplied by variable to give satisfactory high rate
--or ask women, “Have you ever had sex you didn’t want or wish in hindsight you didn’t have?”
--problem: many men would also say yes!
Suggestions from Left and Right
- Feminists and Conservatives both say ban pornography (yet Japan has freely available pornography but very little rape)
- Feminists usually say we should end patriarchy. Some suggest self-defense classes.
- Conservatives say women should be more careful and dress conservatively, and advocate greater punishments for rapists
and more guns for women.
Due Process: The Sex Offender Registry is only used by police. DNAcollected on rape suspects is destroyed after case is
finished.Aminor gets his records sealed upon becoming an adult. InAmerica, a confession is thrown out if Miranda
Rights are not read prior to defendant. In Canada a plaintiff’s sexual past may be examined if the judge decides. In the
USA, there are no restrictions
- Individual: there is something wrong with the guy to begin with (psychological, biological/medical)
- Hirschi’s Self-Control Theory suggests that some men are impulsive
- most extreme version is psychopathology theory
--some guys get aroused by violent sexual images
- Cultural: do we live in a “rape culture” in which men’s gender role emphasizes sexual aggression?
- but vast majority condemn rape, and rape rates vary: you cannot explain a variable by a constant (but it might explain
differences among regions and ethnic groups)
- there IS always some cultural factor, as cultures do not condemn rape the same way: we must not be ethnocentric and
only condemn western cultures! - Situational: a victim-rich environment with few guardians with difficulty to spot escalation
- consistent with RoutineActivities Theory
-collective inebriation) environment that brings about a sense of no individual responsibility (spring break, a riot,
- probably best theory for preventing rape
- “Interactionist” (Malamouth & co) combines Individual & Situational
A) sexual arousal for nonconsensual sex
B) anger towards women
C) attitudes that justify/neutralize violence towards women
D) engaging in impersonal sex
--and E) bad childhood, past abuse
and F) exposure to a delinquent subculture that emphasizes competitive risk-taking for manliness
- it is difficult to make generalizations that apply to all people, and say that sex is never about violence, when we can’t
know what everyone else might feel
- -however, considering how available sex usually is (red light districts) and many stranger-rapists are in relationships,
aggravated rape is not about sex—Ted Bundy described thrill of stalking & escalation
- gang rape seems not to be just an individual product, but more like male-bonding gone wrong
- date/acquaintance rape seems to include miscommunication and a faulty interpretation of what a normal guy is supposed
- rapists almost never think what they did was rape (exclusive definition), while radical feminists use inclusive definitions
about the behavior of others
Rape Takes more than Two People
society to give norms
Many would never commit sexual assault, but promote norms that:
- divide up victims into “proper victims” and those “who were asking for it.”
- diminish the recognition of harm
- cause victims to feel shame, leading to many not to come forward
- it is not usually the rapist that stops the victim from coming forward
- rapists & serial killers are threatened in jail by other prisoners but may receive more fan mail
Chapter 9: Illicit drug use
-what is our mission? what is to be explained?
-positivistic perspective; the issue that needs explaining is why some people use illegal substances. “Why do they do it?”
-seek to reveal the causes of drug use and take drug use as the dependent variable, as the variable that needs
-The factor they isolate as the cause, usually their theory’s name, is the independent or explanatory variable.
-Structure: Factor A(the explanatory or independent variable) causes outcome B (drug use, the dependent
-examine the consequences of actions such as drug use
-for constructionists, the question is “why is the use of certain substances regarded as deviant?
-does not assume that social constructions of drug use are irrational. -it would be wrong to trace the society’s condemnation of drug use and the drug laws exclusively to politics,
ideology, economics or religious edicts
-why condemn and outlaw one type of dangerous behaviour but accept and permit another
-many activities are legal but illegal in other places
-These laws are social constructions, interested in how these factors influence the law and the condemnation of
The social construction of a social problem
-a socially constructed or subjective dimension: the public’s feeling or attitude about it, what is believed about it, what
the public’s or segments of the public’s, feelings, attitudes and beliefs about the individuals who engage in it are
-drug use also has an objective side stating that what drugs actually do to humans who use them, how widely and
frequently they are used, and what kind of impact that have on a society.
-in 1985 and 1986, the number increased more than two and half times
-Gallup pole asks citizens what the biggest problem they are facing is
-1980-1989, drugs were the biggest problem (64%)
- today, it is only 1% for drugs
-moral panic: intense, widespread, explosively upsurging feeling on the part of the public that something is terribly
wrong in their society because of the moral failure of a specific group of individuals, a subpopulation that has been
defined as the enemy, a folk devil.
-moral panics and the fear of and concern about a given behavior or condition do not emerge solely as a result of public
awareness of an objective threat.
-legal drugs kill 30 times as manyAmericans as illegal drugs, yet Americans are far more concerned about illegal drug
abuse than about legal drugs.
-this paradox is central to any examination of drug use as a form of deviance.
-As a general rule, the public’s estimates of the objective harm of specific conditions, behaviors, and issues are
extremely faulty and are influenced by a wide range of extraneous factors.
What is Drug Use?
-Drugs are defined in different ways, according to different criteria and different contexts of use; the use of drug
substances according to some of these definitions are themselves forms of deviance while the use of others may cause or
be associated with deviance
-dictionaries define a drug as a medicine or any other substance used in the treatment of diseases.
-a drug is a substance with a significant effect on the functioning of the mind
-to the general public, a drug is an illegal or illicit substance taken for the purpose of getting high or intoxicated.
-within these definitional context, taking drugs is illegal and, to most of the public, deviant hence drugs are
medicinal, and/or psychoactive, and/or illegal
-constructionists definitions of drugs assume a certain measure of independence between objective properties and
how substances are defined, seen, and dealt with.
-Using substances not authorized as medicine is regarded by physicians as deviant, a violation of the norms of
the medical profession
Aclassification of drugs and their effects
-Stimulants speed up signals passing through the central nervous system. They enable use to feel more alert and awake
-strong stimulants include cocaine, amphetamine and Ritalin. (caffeine also)
-Narcotics or narcotic analgesics diminish the brain’s perception of pain. This category includes the opiates, opium and
its derivatives: morphine, heroine and codeine.
-In addition to their painkilling property, all narcotics are also physically addicting, that is, they generate a
physical dependency on regular, long-term use. in addition to dependence, their effects include mental clouding
and euphoria. -sedatives or general depressants, while not effective painkillers, have a depressive effect on a wide range of body organs
and functions. They tend to induce relaxation, inhibit anxiety, and at higher doses, result in eventually, sleep.
-the most well known of the general depressants is alcohol, which scientists refer to a ethyl alcohol or ethanol
-Hallucinogens (once referred to as psychedelics) have effects on the CNS that cannot be reduced to a simple stimulation-
-these are the drugs that induce profound sensory alterations. They occupy their own unique and distinct category and
include LSD, peyote and mescaline, and psylocybin or magic mushrooms
-the principal effect of hallucinogens is not the inducement of hallucinations, but extreme psychoactivity, a
loosening of the imagination and an intensification of emotional states.
-PCP or Sernyl, once referred to as angle dust (Was an animal tranquilizer)
-MDMAor Ecstasy is sometimes referred to as a hallucinogen, but it does not produce sensory alterations.
-Should be called empathogens because they are capable of inducing empathy, or an emotional
identification with others.
- alcohol is the most used recreational drug
-Marijuana has been classified as a depressant, a stimulant and in the late 1970s a hallucinogen.
- Most observers nowadays feel that it belongs in a category itself
- 1/3 of all americans have used an illicit drug at some point
-marijuana is the most frequent in US
-marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug inAmerican
-whatever the drug, as a source of illegal and deviant behavior, drug use is substantial. But three qualifications are in
order at this point
-1. the use of nearly all illegal drugs declined substantially after the late 1970s
-2. illegal drug use is not nearly as high as many sensational media stories claim
-3. illicit drug use is considerably less widespread than the use of alcohol and tobacco
-legal drugs tend to be used much more often on a continued basis while illegal drugs tend to be used more infrequently
and are more likely to be given up after a period of time.
- the more legal the drug, the more loyal users are
Marijuana Use in the United States (1960-2007)
- at the start of the 1960s, very fewAmericans used illegal drugs (1% youth and less than 5% young adults had tried it)
- 1976, these figures had quadrupled to 5% for youth and 15% for young adults
- use increased from the late 1960s to the late 1970s, and reached its peak in 1979 with 31% (1/3) for youth and 68%
(2/3) for young adults!!
- use declined during the 1980s and rose again during the early 1990s
- in 2007 only 6.7 youth and 16.4 youth said have used marijuana in the past month.
- after early 1990s, for both high school seniors and college students, the percent of marijuana users increased to over a
third who have used in the past year.
- the prevalence of marijuana use does not reach the late 1970s to the early 1980s level, it is significantly higher than it
was in the early 1990s and much much higher than the late 1960s.
Marijuana use as deviance and crime
- 1920s, very few knew about marijuana... consequently, it was not seen as deviant
- until well into the 20th century, the few who did know thought of it as a medicinal herb
- George Washington grew marijuana plants on his plantation
- by the decade of the 1930s, marijuana had become the subject of hundreds of sensationalist newspaper and magazine
- refer madness.. though in the 1960s it was shown to pro-marijuana users and was thought of as ludicrous and
- by this time, laws criminalizing its possession and sale were passed in every state and at the federal level as well - some say it was because of racism against MexicanAmericans
- Western states with largest population of Mexican americans were the ones with the laws passed earliest
- remained completely illegal during the 40s and 60s... however the popularity increased.
- everybody smoked, not just the rich and poor so marijuana acquired a mantle and attitudes began to
-1970, 11 states decriminalized it
- Ronal Regan’s presidency in the 1980s ruined this by making it deviant again.
- one measure of the deviant status of pot use is the growing percentage of high school students who say that marijuana
should be illegal, that the regular use of marijuana is harmful and that they disapprove of regular use.
- Acceptance and tolerance of marijuana at the beginning of the 20th century was not as great as it was during the late
- substances that produce severe dislocations of consciousness, acting on the nervous system to produce significant
- psychoactive drugs: influence the working of the mind
- hallucinogens: powerfully psychoactive in their approach
- 1960’s hallucinogens were referred to as psychedelics. meaning “made manifest” - or is more perceptive than ordinarily
- mescaline: the major ingredient in the peyote cactus
- psilocybin: the major ingredient in the magic mushroom
- during the 1960s both were discussed a lot but none were really used
- mental, psychic and subjective realm
- experiences take on exaggerated emotional significance under the influence; there are often mood swings associated
- but despite of their names... hallucinogens do not produce full blown hallucinations and they will more often have
virtual hallucinations, meaning an experiences or visions they know are a product of the drug and are in their minds
rather than in reality.
- synesthesia: translation of one sense into another- “hearing” color and “seeing” sounds
- Very few users of hallucinogens experience a psychotic outbreak serious enough to require hospitalization.
- magic mushrooms were used by Indians in Mexico and CentralAmerican
- peyote was used by the Indians of Northern Mexico
- the Amanita mushroom among Indigenous Siberian population
- mandrake root is used amongst pre-Christian Europeans.
- 1930, Albert Hoffman discovered LSD.
- he did not experiment until 1943 when he ingested some.
- he experiences an intense play of colors, a sense of timelessness, depersonalization, a loss of control, and fears
of going crazy
- they thought it could be a key to unlock some mental disorders like schizophrenia
- English writer Aldous Huxley (brave new world) took mescaline, the psychoactive ingredient in
peyote, and wrote about his experiences in a slim poetic volume, “The doors of perception.”
- he claimed that psychedelic drugs could bring about a view of reality that washes away the
encrustation of years of rigid socialization and programming
- Timothy Leary Read this book and decided to take a dose of psilocybin.
- he claimed that drugs changed their lives for the better but Harvard dismissed his studies on
lack of sufficient safeguards.
- Prior to 1967, a lot of articles discussed the drug’s supposedly bizarre effects, especially those on going insane.
- 1967 a study was published that indicated that LSD damaged chromosomes - the media immediately surmised that the drug would cause birth defects but usually the dose is taken on the
street which is too weak making it unlikely to cause birth defects
- 1960s LSD was considered the biggest threat facing the country today
- The fear of the conventional majority that users would go crazy, drop out, or overturn their social order never
came to pass and it became just another drug taken on occasion to get high
- these drugs are episodically and sporadically taken place. (the lowest percentage of use is by current users)
- 6/10 of at least one time drinkers consumed one or more alcoholic beverage within the past month
- Though many think 1960 was a psychedelic period, the use only started climbing and was extremely low, reaching a
peak at 1970, declined in 1980 and has remained fairly stable.
- Gallup Poll 1967: only 1 percent of American college students said that they had tried LSD, even once. By
1969 this grew to 4%, by 1971... 18%!
- at the time that mushrooming was a sting, media attention to LSD dropped off
- 1985: 9% seniors... 1990: 8%... 2007: 4%; high school seniors using LSD
- media attention does not reflect how common an activity is and it is likely that people base their notions of the
frequency or commonness and the threat posed to the society.
Cocaine and Crack
- cocaine is most commonly described effects are exhilaration, elation, euphoria and voluptuous, joyous feeling. Also,
there is a sensation of mastery and confidence in what one is and does while reporting a burst of increased energy, the
suppression of fatigue, a stimulation of the capacity to continue physical and mental activity more intensely and for a
longer than normal period of time
- in the 19th century before the drug was understood, cocaine was used by physicians for a variety of ills, ailments and
complaints- first, to offset fatigue and depression; later to cure morphine addiction.
- End of 19th century cocaine, like morphine and opium, was an ingredient in many patent medicines.
- Today, one of its very few medical uses is as a local anesthetic to kill pain when applied topica