SOC 2070 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Statutory Rape, List Of Countries By Intentional Homicide Rate, Rape Culture

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Published on 11 Nov 2015
School
University of Guelph
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2070
Social Deviance: Midterm 2 Notes
Week 6: Violent Crime
Crime and Deviance Overlap
- If there is no stigma attached to the crime, then criminal is not considered deviant
- Victims may also not want to be stigmatized or be labelled as a victim to violent crime
Violence
- Force & coercion without consent
- Usually towards other, but often to self (suicide)
- Men gain control. Women lose control. From violence
Robbery
- Theft with the victim present
- More likely in urban areas. Less likely to be killed if robber had gun, less likely to be
killed if victim had gun
- Victims less likely to know assailant than murder victims
- Robbery is more macho than theft “street culture”
- Not all robbers are bad, most need it for drugs, fast living
Murder as a Social Construct
- Murder only includes murder. No other forms of death to one another.
- Only for Buddhists, Jains and Quakers does it include all killings
- 6th commandment condemns murder, not killing.
- Canada does NOT have a right of self defense. Only reasonable force, unlike some
states
Positivists Murder Generalizations
- Positivists looks at correlations and rates
- Murder rate has gone down since 1992. Peaked 1970s
- Media sensationalizes murder
- Most murder are impulsive and confrontation, mostly intimates, homosocial
More Murder Generalizations
- Murder tends to be intraracial
- Blacks are 6x more likely to be both victim and perp
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- Men commit 90% of murder = 20years of ae
- Men kill men women kill men
- USA 3x higher than Canada
Other Nifty Generalizations
- Ederly have low rates but feel vulnerable: more likely victimized by strangers
- Step children 45x more likely to be murdered by step parents
- Women more vulnerable during pregnancy from partner and ex
- Intoxication usually plays a role (explains escalation)
- Washington DC was murder capital for 39 years
Rape and Sexual Assault
- Sexual assault is the new Canadian more broader term
- American use: Aggravated: violent, Simple: date rape/less violent, Statutory: consent
given was inapplicable
- Canada Recognized Marital Rape in 1983
Stigma of Abuse
- Rape is often a war crime, “Europeans against jews”
- Rape victims often afraid to come forward
- Legal defense often harsh on plaintiff
- Abused men also silenced
Rape Constructed
- Rape is always wrong, but socially constructed in what it refers to
- Traditionally seen as a property crime against men or against their family honor
- Ex. In Pakistan, villag elders ordered a boy’s sister be raped as punishment for talking to
a women outside his caste
- Perceptions – main problem of rape is it brings shame to the family or father
Cause Versus Blame
- Richard Felson – we must always distinguish between the two
- Because some are more vulnerable to assault does Not mean they are guilty or wanted
it.
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- Neither does saying one could be more careful
- Not women’s responsibility to hide or to take responsibility for men’s behaviour
What is consent
- Age of consent in Canada raised from 14 to 16, mitigation for less than 2-5 years in age
difference
- Ae 18 for when with a person in a position of trust
- Age for anal sex is 18 (criminal act)
Rape Controversies
- Intoxication favours the women, even if both parties were drunk. Male can still be
charged with rape even if consent was given.
- Third party can claim rape if they are representing a child, mentall handicapped, and
authority figures
Negotiation of Meaning
- Exchange Theory – boys and girls teach each other to combine sex and love
- Radical Feminists: all heterosexual intercourse is rape- patriarchy brainwashes women
- “What did SHE do” “What did she expect” – society looks for answers to feel safem so
ask on the woman
- Agrresion to have sex and show emotion, can be seen as a positive or negative
- However young people are so awkward about feelings and bodies use alcohol to feel
comfy
Suggestions from Left and Right
- Feminists and Conservatives both say ban Porn. (japan has very little rape, free porn)
- Feminists say we should end patriarchy
- Liberals suggest self-defence classes
- Conservatives say women sould be more careful and dress conservatively
- Civil libertarian feminists promote slutwalk – end slut shamming
Where do we get the Facts
- Lowest figures: Official crime statistics – victim reports – investigations
- Best source is Random Surveys
- False data or misinterpreted results. Or False questioning
Rape Theories
-Individual: Biological, psychological, medical – something wrong with individual
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