SOC 2070 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hijab, East Jerusalem, Baby Daddy

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Published on 9 Aug 2016
School
University of Guelph
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2070
Midterm 2 Review
!
1!
Week 6:
Lecture Violent Crime:
Crime and Deviance:
If a crime has no stigma attached, then criminal is not regarded as deviant
The label ex-con is a stigma, many victims of violent crime also feel trauma and shame and
don’t want other people to know
Much stigma for violent and primal crimes, but not for property and statutory crimes (i.e.,
gambling and insider trading)
Some kinds of criminals seen as more deviant than others
Violence:
Is force and coercion without consent
We are inherently ambivalent about it, it is for both heroes and villains
Movies glamorize it, jargon normalizes it (collateral damage)
Violence is usually towards others, but there is also self-harm: suicide, slashing (more often
done by girls)
Men often describe it as gaining control, women as losing it
Apart of culture violent video games
Robbery:
Theft with victim present and threat of harm interpersonal
Very useful index crime
More likely in urban areas because of anonymity
Less likely to be harmed if robber had a gun but most likely to be killed (least likely to be
harmed or killed if victim had gun)
Robbery victims less likely to know assailants than murder or assault victims
If robbers and victims are more likely Black, Blacks are on average younger and more urban
and may live in areas with more gun control
Violent crime and property crime
Less likely for a robber to know the victim unlike with homicide
“Street culture” upholds violent crime: robbery is seen as more macho than theft
o More masculine; able bodied; young
Some robbers are not deviant, like Robin Hood “stole from the rich to give to the poor”
A lot is for drugs and fast living, though they say they “need money”
Robbery can also be intrinsically pleasurable
Robbers often prepare themselves (i.e., substance use) to turn off fear and remorse
Robbery can lead to rape or felony murder
Home invasion latest robbery trend, but property crimes down by 70% from peak
Want jewelry and cash people don’t really walk around with lots of jewelry and cash on
them; it’s harder for robbers to steal lots and get away with it
Like to ambush in and out of your car; alleys
Murder as a Social Construct:
Usually does not include all killing: executions, suicide, self-defense, abortion, euthanasia,
war, accidents, police shootings
Only for a small minority (i.e., Buddhists, Jains, and Quakers) does it include all killing
Sixth Commandment condemns murder, not killing
In Canada, there is NO right to self-defense: one is to use “reasonable force” or to flee (if you
shoot an attacker dead, it’s manslaughter)
Unlike in some states, where lethal force can be used as a first resort against intruders and
assailants (often called “the Castle” doctrine)
Positivist Murder Generalizations I:
A positivist looks at correlations and rates
Murder rate has gone down (peaked in mid 1970s, dropped since 1992)
Media’s view of murder sensationalist
Most are not premeditated but impulsive and confrontational
Most are justified by perpetrator
Intimates kill each other more than strangers
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Midterm 2 Review
!
2!
Murderers and victims are homosocial (are similar)
o Particularly true that people are more likely to be killed by someone they know;
someone in the same neighbourhood; ethnic group; gender; etc
Murder is a high consensus form of deviance/crime everyone can see it’s wrong ! dead
body there, so it’s obvious that it actually happened
Murder tends to be intraracial, not interracial **(good multiple choice question)
Blacks are more likely to be both victims and perpetrators by a factor of 6x the national
average
Murderers are disproportionately of lower socio-economic status
Men commit 90% of murders, median (half) age 20 ! young men are the most dangerous
USA’s murder rate is 3x higher than Canada (1.6 vs. 4.7 per 100,000)
o Been true for 50+ years
o Alaska, Minnesota, Utah, etc have low murder rates; Detroit and Washington D.C.
have extremely high murder rates
Rates of violent crime have dropped historically since Middle Ages and Renaissance
Chance of surviving a murder attempt has gone up
Elderly have low rates of victimization but feel vulnerable: more likely victimized by strangers
Step-children 45x murdered more by parents
Women become more vulnerable during pregnancy from partners and ex-partners
o Especially if the “baby-daddy” isn’t the real “baby-daddy”
o Jealousy plays a huge impact whether it be because of infidelity or loss of attention
because the baby is not at the center
Both murderers and victims are often intoxicated (explains escalation)
Human beings are apart of the animal kingdom evolution has happened; sociologists are
now asking questions like what similarities are there between humans and violent crime and
others in the animal kingdom and violent crime
Rape and Sexual Assault:
Traditional term is rape today, the legal term in Canada is sexual assault, a broader term
Aggravated: particularly violent or stranger-rape
Simple: less violent and acquaintance / date rape
Statutory rape: rape when consent was given but inapplicable (deception, age, or mental
infirmity)
Someone is going to be deviant at least 1 of the parties involved
Rape is always a violent crime
How Safe Do You Feel?
Universities are covered with special lights and there are walk programs to protect women
From stranger-rape, universities are relatively safe
Women students walk around with headphones blaring under glare of lights set up to protect
them, encouraged to participate in “hook-up culture”
The greatest at risk groups include the mentally and physically challenged, the insane,
homeless, prostitutes
Stigma of Abuse:
Rape is often a war crime to humiliate an entire tribe, such as in European pogroms against
Jews
Muslim terrorist known to rape a woman to make her a suicide bomber no man will marry
you or find you desirable because you’ve already been touched, so there’s no reason not to
sacrifice yourself
Rape victims are often afraid to come forward
People want to believe the world is just, and that they are safe, so ask, “what did she do?”
Legal defense often harsh on plaintiff any crime or unusual behaviour is fair game
o Really go after the personal reputation of the alleged victim and try to drag things out
from a persons’ past
Abused men also silenced
o Don’t usually want to come forward because they’re seen as less than a man
o If raped in prison, the victim is called a fag and the perpetrator is considered manly
for enforcing himself and his power on the other
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Midterm 2 Review
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Interviewing Rapists:
In prison interviews, rapists will way whatever makes them look better or gets better
treatment: the rape is caused by society, or that they didn’t enjoy it, blame substance use, or
childhood problems
o Rapists will lie or tell people whatever they want to hear
o Say they’re innocent
o Blame childhood upbringing
o Want to inflict pain and break the law
Erich Goode and Diana Scully: the dominant belief that rape is about power / violence and
not about sex glosses over than for many rapists power / violence and sex may be
indistinguishable or overlap ! sex is about power and power is about sex
When you let rapists speak freely, they use:
o Techniques of neutralization (it wasn’t so bad) killed the victim gently, make
themselves look better
o Justification (women are teases or gave consent) she deserved it
o Excuses (they were in a slump or drunk) did it, but were not fully in control of
themselves and their actions
Rapists thus have narrow and exclusive definition of rape that preserves their self-image
Criminals in hail have high self-esteem:
o Consider themselves wonderful and highly desirable
o If insulted they overreact normal guys with real self-esteem don’t overreact
Criminals in jail have a weird portrayal of rape
o Impossible to rape a woman because she wants it; gave off vibes; sexual assault
isn’t something they do themselves
Rape Constructed:
Rape is always wrong, but socially constructed in what it refers to
Traditionally seen as a property crime against men or against their family honour if man
rapes a girl, the rapist needs to marry the woman because no one else will want her
o Way to punish rapist, but now he gets to rape his wife through marriage whenever he
wants to because women aren’t allowed to say no to their husband
Such perceptions see main problem of rape is that it brings shame to the family or the father
o Specific cultures
o Nothing to do with a woman’s right against being violated
Cause vs. Blame:
To say that some people are more vulnerable to assault does NOT mean they are guilty or
wanted it; neither does saying one could be more careful
Certain situations are more dangerous than others; certain groups are more likely to be
targeted by predators if they didn’t exist others would be
It is not a woman’s responsibility to hide or to take responsibility for men’s behaviour many
women get blamed for what men do
What is Consent:
Is saying “I do” permanent consent; how can consent be taken back; can a hooker claim lack
of consent; is not saying anything, consent?
Age of consent Canada’s age of consent raised to 16 from 14 with mitigation for less than
2-5 years in age difference
Consensual sex with a minor was once called statutory rape
Age 18 from when with a person in a position of trust / position of authority
Age of consent for anal sex under Section 159 of Criminal Act is 18
o Rule was put in because it was believed that gay men could be predatorial and it
gave boys who were on the edge of deciding their sexual orientation more time to
make up their mind
Oral sex legalized in 1969 with same consent age
American federal law prohibits moving a minor under 18 across state lines for sexual
purposes or using federal communications
o Age of consent varies depending on the state; not breaking a state law but breaking
the federal law
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Document Summary

Crime and deviance: the label ex-con is a stigma, many victims of violent crime also feel trauma and shame and. Is force and coercion without consent: some kinds of criminals seen as more deviant than others. Stigma of abuse: rape is often a war crime to humiliate an entire tribe, such as in european pogroms against. If raped in prison, the victim is called a fag and the perpetrator is considered manly for enforcing himself and his power on the other. If insulted they overreact normal guys with real self-esteem don"t overreact: criminals in jail have a weird portrayal of rape. Impossible to rape a woman because she wants it; gave off vibes; sexual assault isn"t something they do themselves. It is not a woman"s responsibility to hide or to take responsibility for men"s behaviour many women get blamed for what men do.