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University of Guelph
SOC 2700
Norman Dubeski

SOC 2700: HISTORY OF CRIME PART ONE 1.Three types of Crime Explanation  External forces: nature, cosmology, and demonology  Internal causes  Group association 2. The objective-subjective debate  Objective: behaviour is real.  Subjective: behaviour is constructed. 3.The Classical School of Criminology (1680-1800)  Tied to the enlightenment -  Role of hedonism (self-interest)  Importance of free will  Social contract  Role of punishment  Utilitarianism (greatest good)  Philosophies (Voltaire, Arouet, Hobbes, Kant and Hume) Cesare Beccaris (1738-1794) a)Book: “on Crimes and Punishments” b) classification of crimes: high treason, personal security, and public tranquility c)measure of crime: social harm -measuring crime based on the social harm it does. -the overall public reacts to the problem in society d)punishment and the right to punish  law -laws in the books if you violate them you break the law you do the time -reinforces the norms we have in society and unites members of society. -unites people says we are safe and can feel safe because we are catching the terrorists. … they are capturing these people)  authority of judges -excessive punishments -laws are there to be just. -arbitrary punishments back in Cesare’s day…he says that it should be given through the legislatives.... in Canada the criminal code is a major set of rules so judges cant give excessive punishments if not needed. -judges have to act like a third party. They rarely give intervies or opinions on candidates. -impartiality cannot be connected to a political party Cesare was trying to attempt this by judges to be partial. THE BASICS OF DETTERANCE: Jail is a detterance you are not spposed to want to go back to jail. e) evidence and forms of judgment f)punishment as a deterrent  promptness  severity  certainty -punishment is deterrence you do not want to go back to jail. -derreance of crime Cesare:  promptness  severity  certainty -child pornography in Belgium people buying in Canada hard to catch because it is in a different country.. catch me if you can in technology…Certainty of punishment (CESARE) .. -severity of crime must be taken into account  IS THE DEATH PENATLY ACCESIVE FORCE OF LAW?? -punishment should be proportional g)the death penalty: potential problems h) other ideas 5.JEREMY BENTHAM (1748-1832) a)Book: “Principles of Morals and Legislation” b)similarities with Beccaria  Utilitarianism  Happiness of the people  Punishment as a deterrent _mankind avoids pain and seeks pleasure…legislatives should reinforce feeling of happiness to restore society… law gives emotional security of the society -punish small portion of society through laws for the greatest good for the greatest amount of people. c)Panopticon concept HOW CAN PRISONS BE A SUCESSFUL DETTERENT -penopticon concept -prison tower to see in each individual cell -surveillance 24 hours a day(looks like a lighthouse in the jail) -“prisons are only the start”…technology is advancing.  Prison design 
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