Philosophies (voltaire, arouet, hobbes, kant and hume) Cesare beccaris (1738-1794) a)book: on crimes and punishments : classification of crimes: high treason, personal security, and public tranquility c)measure of crime: social harm. Measuring crime based on the social harm it does. The overall public reacts to the problem in society d)punishment and the right to punish law. Laws in the books if you violate them you break the law you do the time. Reinforces the norms we have in society and unites members of society. Unites people says we are safe and can feel safe because we are catching the terrorists. Arbitrary punishments back in cesare"s day he says that it should be given through the legislatives in canada the criminal code is a major set of rules so judges cant give excessive punishments if not needed. Judges have to act like a third party. They rarely give intervies or opinions on candidates.