SOC 2700: HISTORY OF CRIME PART ONE
1.Three types of Crime Explanation
External forces: nature, cosmology, and demonology
2. The objective-subjective debate
Objective: behaviour is real.
Subjective: behaviour is constructed.
3.The Classical School of Criminology
Tied to the enlightenment
Role of hedonism (self-interest)
Importance of free will
Role of punishment
Utilitarianism (greatest good)
Philosophies (Voltaire, Arouet, Hobbes, Kant and Hume)
Cesare Beccaris (1738-1794)
a)Book: “on Crimes and Punishments”
b) classification of crimes: high treason, personal security, and public tranquility
c)measure of crime: social harm
-measuring crime based on the social harm it does.
-the overall public reacts to the problem in society
d)punishment and the right to punish
-laws in the books if you violate them you break the law you do the time
-reinforces the norms we have in society and unites members of society.
-unites people says we are safe and can feel safe because we are catching the
terrorists. … they are capturing these people)
authority of judges
-laws are there to be just.
-arbitrary punishments back in Cesare’s day…he says that it should be given through
the legislatives.... in Canada the criminal code is a major set of rules so judges cant
give excessive punishments if not needed.
-judges have to act like a third party. They rarely give intervies or opinions on
-impartiality cannot be connected to a political party Cesare was trying to attempt
this by judges to be partial. THE BASICS OF DETTERANCE: Jail is a detterance you are not spposed to want to go
back to jail.
e) evidence and forms of judgment
f)punishment as a deterrent
-punishment is deterrence you do not want to go back to jail.
-derreance of crime Cesare:
-child pornography in Belgium people buying in Canada hard to catch
because it is in a different country.. catch me if you can in
technology…Certainty of punishment (CESARE) ..
-severity of crime must be taken into account
IS THE DEATH PENATLY ACCESIVE FORCE OF LAW??
-punishment should be proportional
g)the death penalty: potential problems
h) other ideas
5.JEREMY BENTHAM (1748-1832)
a)Book: “Principles of Morals and Legislation”
b)similarities with Beccaria
Happiness of the people
Punishment as a deterrent
_mankind avoids pain and seeks pleasure…legislatives should reinforce
feeling of happiness to restore society… law gives emotional security of the
-punish small portion of society through laws for the greatest good for the
greatest amount of people.
HOW CAN PRISONS BE A SUCESSFUL DETTERENT
-prison tower to see in each individual cell
-surveillance 24 hours a day(looks like a lighthouse in the jail)
-“prisons are only the start”…technology is advancing. Prison design