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[SOC 2700] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 39 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2700
Professor
Reza Barmaki
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
SOC 2700
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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SOC2700- Week 3
Chapter 1 Readings
Crime and Criminology
Criminal justice system is the stages through which the offender passes, including
police, courts and corrections
Intimate violence is crime that occurs in the context of familiarity, such as spousal
abuse, child abuse or elder abuse
People do rely on their experience when assessing the likelihood of being a victim of
crime, but rather draw from such sources like the media
Third knowledge of crime has long term effects creating fear of crime, a negative view of
the police and the courts and attitude favoring harsher punishments for offenders
Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, extent, cause and control of criminal
behaviour
Criminologist is one who brings objectivity and method to the study of crime and its
consequences
What is Criminology?
Scientific method is very important in criminology
Criminologist use objective research to gather data, create theories and test the validity
of those cases
They use every method of established social science inquiry: analysis of existing records,
experimental designs, surveys, historical analysis and content analysis
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Criminologists explain the origin, extent and nature of crime in society, whereas the
criminal justice scholars describe and analyze the work of the police, courts and
correctional facilities, and how to better design effective methods of crime control
Criminologists must be aware of how the agencies of criminal justice operate, and
criminal justice experts design programs of crime prevention or rehabilitation through
their understanding of the nature of the crime
Criminology and Deviance
Deviant behaviour is behaviour that departs from or doesn’t conform to social norms,
but isn’t defines as a crime by the law
Crime and deviance are often confused yet not all crimes are deviant or unusual acts
and not all deviant acts and illegal or criminal
Many deviant act and not even criminal even though they may be shocking, for
example if you see someone drowning you don’t have to save them and it wont be
considered a crime
The relationship between crime and deviance is depicted along three different
dimensions: the evaluation or social harm, the level of agreement about the norm and
the severity of societal response
Two issues of interest to criminologists is
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1. How do deviant behaviours become crimes?
2. When should acts considered crimes be legalized
Decriminalization the reducing of penalty for a criminal act, and its illegality
A Brief History of Criminology
The studying of crime and criminality is quite recent
During the middle ages, people who violated social or religious norms or practices were
believed to be witches or posse’s demons and the way to deal with them was to burn
them at the stake
Classical Criminology
Utilitarianism is a view that punishment should be balanced and fair, and that crime is a
rational choice
Cesare Beccaria who was an Italian aristocrat believed that people want to achieve
pleasure and avoid pain, so if crime provides pleasure to the criminal, pain must be used
to prevent the crime
Classical criminology is defining as the perspective that people freely choose crime, and
it can be reduced through threat of criminal sanctions
Classical criminology can be characterized by a few basic elements:
1. People will freely choose criminal and unlawful solutions to meet needs or settle
problems
2. Criminal choices may be more attractive because they use less work and have a
greater payoff
3. Peoples choice of criminal solutions may be controlled by fear of punishment
4. If punishment is severe, certain and swift they will control criminal behavior
19th Century Positivism
Positivism is a branch of social science that sees behavior as a product of social,
biological, psychological and economic forces
Positivism has two basic elements, the first is the belief that human behaviour is a
function of external forces that are beyond individual control… some forces include
wealth and class
The second aspect of positivism is its use of the scientific method to solve problems
Positivist criminology
Phrenologists believed that external cranial characteristics dictate which areas of the
brain control physical activity
By the early 19th century abnormality in the human mind was being linked to criminal
behavior patterns
Manie san delire means mania without delusion
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