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Midterm

SOC 2700 Midterm: Midterm 1 Notes


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2700
Professor
Reza Barmaki
Study Guide
Midterm

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Criminological Theory
TEST #1 October 4th
Lecture#1
WHAT IS CRIMINOLOGY?
Theories of Crime
1)Wrongdoing: (sociology-deviance), (legal-crime), (psychology-abnormality/
disorder in behaviour), (religion-sin defying a god)
2)Criminology: theoretical explanation and detection/punishment
3)Criminology Justice System Approach: includes the elements of crime (actus
reus and mens rea)
-CJS: detection/ judgement/ punishment
-Penology: philosophy and methods of punishment
-victimology:
4)Sociology of Laws: social conditions determine forms of law and legal system
5)Elements of Crime:
Actus Reus
Mens Rea
6)theory is a general explanation if something
7)White Collar Crime: Sutherland states committed by a person of respectability
and high social status in the course of his occupation. Business men/people in high
positions (priests for example)
8)Corporate Crime: need/greed, self-control, corporate culture. Organized crime is
illegal and often involves violence. More than one person who come together and
commit crimes
-to be a criminal you are breaking the criminal code
1)Statistics
2)Theory: general explanation
3)Major paradigms: consensus/ conflict/ interactionist
4)Research: Methods/ethics
GANGS AND ORGANIZED CRIME
4 -degree of organization
-purpose
-division of labour/planning/rules/reward and punishment/advancement
-legal status of method of achieving purpose
-corporate/patron-client (patron-client: defined as mutual arrangement between
a person that has authority, social status, wealth, or some other personal resource
(patron) and another who benefits from their support or influence)
-history
-gender
-victimization
-political involvement
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-geographic extent of influence
4-causes of gang membership?
1)Psychological:
-needs: belonging/intimacy
-personality: anti-social
2)Sociological:
-strain/social disorganization/differential association/opportunity
theory/focal concerns
3)rational choice
-money, protection
LECTURE
-victimizationif you are involved with crime you are more likely to be victim
3 Theories of Corporate Crime
1)greed
2)Low self-control
-low internal restraint against deviance
-no self-control by nature
-parental supervision during childhood
-policy: reward and punishment
3)Corporate culture
-capitalism
-c>>C>>C
Biological and Physiological Theories
-pessimism
-positivism
-No: supernatural explanations
-Method: natural sciences
-Born Criminal Theories
-1)natural sources
-2)inborn (free will?)
-3)physical traits
-4)identify criminals
-physiognomy
Phrenology
Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828, German)
-organ: destructive propensity
-kill, stab, cut, scratch…
-exists in all/larger in males
-criminals: disproportionately
-Notes:
-Biology not free will
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