Study Guides (238,388)
Canada (115,122)
Sociology (551)
SOC 2700 (58)

chapter 4

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
SOC 2700
Norman Dubeski

Week 4: - Locke’s ideas were not original but rather the articulation of centuries of political experience the common currency of an enterprising middle class - born in the west of England - given the name “father of the English enlightenment” - 1652, Locke entered Christ Church College at Oxford, where he read widely outside the scope - 1667 Locke joined the household of Anthony Cooper as a secretary and family doctor - powerful ally of Charles II but when they had a fall out, Locke went against him, brought Locke into the heart of the political conflicts - Glorious Revolution: William of Orange won, Locke returned as a man of high power - in his 15 years left to him, he published his major works - Locke had two arguments for absolute government: ● First Treatise:  ○ His target is the patriarchal theory of divine right monarchy  ○ Kings should be thought of as the direct theirs of Adam, that their sovereignty was indivisible, and that God had set some men above others, fathers above sons, men above women, the older above the younger, and masters above their servants  ○ Locke refutes father over his children because it is only temporary and were intended to overcome Second Treatise:  ● Locke takes issue with Hobbes (without mentioning him)  ● Men are more reasonable and more inclined to society than the selfish, calculating creates that Hobbes describes  ● Locke sees men’s condition as prepolitical but not presocial, because they are guided by a rule more fundamental than the laws of the state: the law of nature  ● The law of nature binds human beings to obey just government once it has been inaugurated by consent  ● Locke draws on the natural law tradition, it concerns mostly individual rights rather than individual responsibilities to society and above all the protection of property  ● Locke means by property the protection of persons as well as goods, and limits an individual’s right to property to “as much land as a man tills, plants, improves, cultivates, and can use the product of”  ● Locke’s version of the social contract, men retain all the rights of the state of nature and surrender only the right to enforce them  ● consent must be unanimous and among free individuals, not between the people and their rules  ● contract can be drawn up only once  ● the doctrine of tacit consent is one of the weak points in Locke’s theory  ● new government if their rulers fail to exercise their trust in the interests of the governed Second Treatise: II Of The State Of Nature:  ● to understand political power right, and derive it from its original, we must consider what state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions, and persons as they think fit  ● a state also of equality, wherein all the power and jurisdiction is reciprocal, no one having more than another  ● no liberty to destroy himself or so much as any creature in his possession  ● help preserve the rest of mankind  ● in the state of nature, every one has the executive power of the law of nature – unreasonable for men to be judges in their own cases, that self-love will make men partial to themselves and their friends and that nature, passion and revenge will carry them too far in punishing others and nothing but confusion and disorder will follow and that God certainly appointed government to restrain the partiality and violence of men V Property:  ● every man has a property of his own person  ● the labor of his body and the work of his hands are properly his  ● whatever is beyond what he needs, is to be shared  ● nothing was made by God for man to spoil or destroy  ● God gave the world to men in common; but since he gave it them for their benefit it cannot be supposed he meant it should always remain common and uncultivated  ● everyone had a right to as much as they could use  ● had property in all that he could affect with his labor  ● foolish to hoard more than you needed  ● money in exchange for supports of life  ● money gave people the opportunity to expand themselves, industries, etc VIII Of The Beginning Of Political Societies:  ● only way man is not free, is if he agrees with other men to join and unite into a community for their comfortable, safe, and peaceable living one amongst another  ● when men have made a community, they must make one person have the power to act as one body, the body should always side with what majority of people want  ● if every man agrees to a community, they must be understood to give up all the power to the majority of the community XI Of The Ends Of Political Society And Government:
More Less

Related notes for SOC 2700

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.