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Article Notes For Final.docx

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University of Guelph
SOC 2760

Article Notes For Final Collins et. al. 27/03/2013 8:06:00 AM Advances in violent crime analysis and law enforcement: The Canadian Violence Crime Linkage System  Serious criminals are aware of the failure between agencies to communicate with each other  Canada introduced the Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System (ViCLAS) which helps to overcome language barriers Automated Case Linkage System  A term used to describe a computerized data base collection of information about solved/unsolved crimes  Investigators use this to find similarities to help solve cases  FBI  Violent Crime Apprehension Program (VICAP)  Mid 1980’s, Canada introduced the Major Crime File (MCF), Canada’s first attempt at automated case linkage o A text based narrative search database o Filled out by investigators and then sent to RCMP o Relied on accuracy and completeness of investigator’s reporting, need for accuracy of data entry o 1990: 800 cases on file, 0 linkages o ultimately unsuccessful Criminal Investigative Analysis and ViCLAS  MacKay: From May 1991 – 1992 the Violent Crime Analysis Branch analysed existing automated case linkage systems  Chose what were considered to be the best features in each system to include in ViCLAS o ViCLAS collects sexual offences as well as homicides ViCLAS Data Collection  Long Form: Predatory Homicides and Sexual Offences o 39 Pages, 263 Questions o Apparently random, motiveless, little is known  Short Form: All other homicides o 8 Pages, 83 Questions  Short Sexual Assault Form: sexual assaults where little is known  The forms Combine o Psychological principles o Behaviours o Data on the victims, the suspected offender, their behaviour o Forensic Information  ViCLAS uses closed ended questions and multiple choice o Force an investigator to make a decision o Consider information they might not have thought of o Potentially identity a signature of the offender o Codes this information allow for bilingual information to be kept and still linked  Confidentiality is controlled o Information can be entered as “sensitive” o Question 263 is a request for “key Facts” or “hold Back”  This means the information is important but needs to be held in confidence  Once a positive link is made, the ViCLAS analyst has the two investigators contact each other  ViCLAS operated at 11 stand alone sites, in 1996 it merged the sites Case Study (see pg. 283) Recent Developments  Justice Campbell: ViCLAS is being used in Ontario only to a fraction of it’s capacity because there is not regulation that requires police to use it o In the 2 ½ years since it was started: OPP only entered 1,387 cases, of the estimated 16,500 cases that could have been entered o 1995: under 30% of Ontario’s Murders and under 6% of sexual assaults were entered o 1996: 90% of ViCLAS entries are west of Ontario  Has called to make ViCLAS mandatory in Ontario Pridemore 27/03/2013 8:06:00 AM Recognizing homicide as a public health threat: Toward an integration of sociological and public health perspectives in the study of violence  Many sociologists and criminologists are struggling over issues that public health counterparts have already recognized  Both sides are wasting important scientific energy because they are either unaware of the other’s literature or too-discipline centered  Several researchers have recognized the importance of violence as a public health problem, and public health officials are beginning to come abroad  Sociologists and criminologists have recognized the importance of public health approaches  This article is meant to encourage debate over the potential benefits and drawbacks to the integration of criminology and public health The Burden of Violence  1996: World Health Assembly declared violence a public health concern o Interpersonal violence and war-related deaths constituted nearly ¼ of injury related mortality worldwide  Interpersonal violence alone is the third leading cause of death in the injury category o Males suffer this fate at a disproportionately higher rate than females  Excess mortality due to violence disproportionately influences a population’s life expectancy o Victims of violence tend to be younger than those dying of internal causes o It is often a leading cause of total years of potential life lost  Intentional violent injuries contribute substantially to overall mortality worldwide  There is accumulating evidence that direct and indirect exposure to violence in childhood is a risk factor for o Delinquency o Violence as an adult o Mental other health problems  High rates of violence create fear, uncertainty, and stress among community members. This affects: o Individual health o Social cohesion o Social institutions  Families of the victim and the convicted offender also suffer the psychological anguish and economic burdens associated with the death or incarceration of a loved one o This affects emotional health  There are enormous costs associated with the private and public response to violence. This includes o Physicians o Hospitals o Prisons o Police and protective services o Annual cost of gun violence in US: 100 Billion  Homicide is thus an avoidable cause of death that can be mitigated with concerted policies and prevention techniques  Adding a public health perspective to this work will be beneficial in translating what we know about the cause of violence into effective practices for it’s reduction and prevention Nations and Populations with High Levels of Excess Mortality From Lethal Violence  1990: Estimated 560,000 homicides world wide (10.5 per 100,000) o interpersonal homicides accounted for 30% of all violent deaths  Age and gender specific homicide rates were highest for: o Young men age 15-29 o Females age 0-4  High rates of female infanticide are likely the result of the relative devaluing of the lives of girls/women in certain cultures Two Examples of the burden to specific populations of homicide  Violence related morbidity among African Americans in the US is recognized as a serious public health issue in the 1980s/90s o Homicide is the #1 killer of Blacks aged 15-24, with an age- specific rate of 55 per 100,000 o This is a cause for concern among public health officials  Russia o First, homicide mortality in Russia was not as low as previously advertised by Soviet Officials, and recent research reveals that homicide mortality in Russia has been comparable to the US for at least 35 years o Second, during the transition years, violent death became one of the main components of the sharp reduction in life- expectancy among males in Russia.  The Russian homicide rate tripled between 1988-1994 o Homicide victimization rates also show a curious age pattern, with men and women in their 30s, 40s, and 50s, more at risk of homicide victimization than younger ages.  Rate for men 30-50 more than 75 per 100,000  This rise certainly qualifies as a serious health threat among Russian citizens, especially working age men Integrating Sociological and Public Health Perspectives Sociological Criminology  The main goal of sociological criminologists is to develop causal theories from past observations and empirically evaluate their validity  Theory construction and testing, together with policy and intervention analysis, might be the main roles for sociologically oriented criminologists in an integrated approach to the prevention of violence  Most criminologists and sociologists believe that examining group- level and community characteristics is vital to understanding the patterns and antecedents of homicide rates  Interpersonal interactions are often conditioned by the location and social setting in which they occur, normative expectations and behaviour responses vary from place to place  However, social features have never committed a homicide o Individuals commit homicide and are victims too  Thus, long term goals of sociologists who study homicide include o How structural factors operate to cause higher homicide rates in certain areas o How these group-level effects translate into risk and protective factors for potential homicide victims and offenders  Much knowledge about homicide developed by criminologists and sociologists mirrors that developed by public health researchers o Multiple level causation o Structural covariates of health outcomes  Finally, complex interaction effects: those infected with a disease- causing agent are not at equal risk of developing a conditions, just like all individuals and families with similar levels of poverty do not face the same risk of homicide mortality o This is a clear example of how place and social structure matter Public Health  Although they are external in nature, violence related morbidity and mortality are no less a threat to physical and mental health  A main public health goal is harm reduction, not just scientific knowledge  Public health has a tradition of focusing on individual risk and protective factors  There has been a shift in public health toward realizing the role of the social environment in the incidence and prevalence of morbidity and mortality  Main Contributions of Public Health to the study of Violence o An Emphasis on and commitment to violence prevention o Prevention strategies that are based on sound scientific evidence o Acting in an interdisciplinary manner to integrate information from several fields and use it to create efficient, cost-effective and complementary responses o Providing effective health services that mitigate the physical and psychological injuries of victims of violence o A commitment to recognizing the important role of communities in responding to violence  Public health perspective is action oriented, it’s main goal is analysis of scientific evidence to improve injury prevention and violence reduction  To Carry out the contributions outlined above: o Create a surveillance system: outline/identify the problem o Discover Risk factors: identify causes o Develop and test Interventions: what works? o Implementation and evaluation: what works, where, and how? Conclusion:  The article suggest that violence is a serious health threat in many populations and that it has extensive negative physical, emotional, social and economic consequences.  Homicide is an external cause of death that exhibits consistent demographic, temporal and spatial patterns. In other words, homicide is not necessarily a random event but instead is a patterned cause of death with antecedents that can be empirically determined.  Homicide is a preventable form of mortality, and the burden of violence can be minimized via public health interventions, especially among those populations with high levels of excess mortality resulting from it.  Public health has a history of successfully applying scientific knowledge to implement efficacious intervention strategies that involve changing institutional and individual behaviours that are difficult to influence  The traditionally interdisciplinary approach of public health provides the tools to discover both individual and social risk and protective factors and develop effective intervention strategies that can reduce the public health burden of violence  Despite difficulties in doing so, an integration of the sociological/criminological and public health perspectives should be synergistic, allowing us to improve our understanding of and response to the heavy burden of homicide and other types of violence Pozzulo 27/03/2013 8:06:00 AM Homicide Offenders Nature and Extent of Homicidal Violence  Canadian Law recognizes four different types of homicide o First Degree: all murder that is planned and deliberate  Includes the murder of law enforcement, correctional staff member  When a murder occurs in the commission of another crime  Life in prison o Second Degree: all murder that is not considered first- degree  Life in prison o Manslaughter: unintentional murder or criminal negligence  Life in prison o Infanticide: the killing of a baby  Max. 5 years in prison  Canada is seeing a steady rise in gang-related homicides  2008: 200 homicides resulted from the use of firearms, mostly handguns (61%)  The rate of females killed because of homicide is decreasing  Homicides are more likely to occur in the Western provinces o Manitoba reports the highest homicide rates (4.47) o New Brunswick reports the lowest homicide rate (0.40) o Territories have much higher rates than any province (12.72) Bimodal Classification of Homicide  Reactive Aggression/Affective Violence: violence that is impulsive, unplanned, immediate, driven by negative emotions, and occurring in response to some perceived provocation. o Occurs most often among relatives o 80% of homicides  Instrumental Aggression/Predatory Aggression: violence that is premeditated, calculated behaviour, motivated by some goal o Occurs most often among strangers o 20% of homicides  Filicide: the killing of children by their biological parents of step- parents, includes: o Neonaticide: killing a baby within 24 hours of being born o Infanticide: killing a baby within the first year of life  Child murder in Canada is uncommon, in 2004 only 55 children under the age of 18 were killed o 62% of these homicides were perpetrated by family members o 85% were committed by a parent  59% fathers  32% mother  14% of all parents accused of killing their children are the child’s step-parent Mothers Who Kill There are 3 main types of Maternal filicides  Neonaticide o Typically young, unmarried women, no prior history of mental illness, not suicidal, concealed their pregnancy  Battering Mothers o Kill their children impulsively, high rate of social and family stress, financial and marital problems,  Mothers with mental illness o Older and married, likely to have killed other children, multiple victims, be diagnosed with a psychosis or depression, most likely to attempt suicide after  Altruistic Filicide: mothers who kill out of love, the murder is in response to the mother’s delusional belief that the child’s death will protect the child. Infanticide and Mental Illness  Some people believe that women who kill their infants are suffering from a mental illness related to childbirth o Postpartum Blues  most common, experienced by up to 85% of women, crying, irritability, and anxiety, rarely continuing past day 12  Not considered a factor in Neonaticide or filicide o Postpartum Depression  Experienced by 7-19% of women, usually lasts several months, symptoms are identical to clinical depression o Postpartum Psychosis  Most rare, 1-2/1000 births, involves delusions, hallucinations, suicidal and homicidal thoughts, occurs within 3 months of childbirth  Andrea Yates (drowned her 5 kids) and Suzanne Johnson (jumped in front of a subway with her baby) Fathers who Kill  Fathers rarely commit Neon
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