SOC 2760 Study Guide - Final Guide: Psychoanalysis, Child Murder, Group Cohesiveness

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
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Collins et. al. 27/03/2013 8:06:00 AM
Advances in violent crime analysis and law enforcement: The Canadian
Violence Crime Linkage System
Serious criminals are aware of the failure between agencies to
communicate with each other
Canada introduced the Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System
(ViCLAS) which helps to overcome language barriers
Automated Case Linkage System
A term used to describe a computerized data base collection of
information about solved/unsolved crimes
Investigators use this to find similarities to help solve cases
FBI Violent Crime Apprehension Program (VICAP)
Mid 1980’s, Canada introduced the Major Crime File (MCF),
Canada’s first attempt at automated case linkage
o A text based narrative search database
o Filled out by investigators and then sent to RCMP
o Relied on accuracy and completeness of investigator’s
reporting, need for accuracy of data entry
o 1990: 800 cases on file, 0 linkages
o ultimately unsuccessful
Criminal Investigative Analysis and ViCLAS
MacKay: From May 1991 1992 the Violent Crime Analysis Branch
analysed existing automated case linkage systems
Chose what were considered to be the best features in each system
to include in ViCLAS
o ViCLAS collects sexual offences as well as homicides
ViCLAS Data Collection
Long Form: Predatory Homicides and Sexual Offences
o 39 Pages, 263 Questions
o Apparently random, motiveless, little is known
Short Form: All other homicides
o 8 Pages, 83 Questions
Short Sexual Assault Form: sexual assaults where little is known
The forms Combine
o Psychological principles
o Behaviours
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o Data on the victims, the suspected offender, their behaviour
o Forensic Information
ViCLAS uses closed ended questions and multiple choice
o Force an investigator to make a decision
o Consider information they might not have thought of
o Potentially identity a signature of the offender
o Codes this information allow for bilingual information to be
kept and still linked
Confidentiality is controlled
o Information can be entered as “sensitive”
o Question 263 is a request for “key Facts” or “hold Back”
This means the information is important but needs to be
held in confidence
Once a positive link is made, the ViCLAS analyst has the two
investigators contact each other
ViCLAS operated at 11 stand alone sites, in 1996 it merged the
sites
Case Study (see pg. 283)
Recent Developments
Justice Campbell: ViCLAS is being used in Ontario only to a fraction
of it’s capacity because there is not regulation that requires police
to use it
o In the 2 ½ years since it was started: OPP only entered 1,387
cases, of the estimated 16,500 cases that could have been
entered
o 1995: under 30% of Ontario’s Murders and under 6% of
sexual assaults were entered
o 1996: 90% of ViCLAS entries are west of Ontario
Has called to make ViCLAS mandatory in Ontario
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Pridemore 27/03/2013 8:06:00 AM
Recognizing homicide as a public health threat: Toward an integration of
sociological and public health perspectives in the study of violence
Many sociologists and criminologists are struggling over issues that
public health counterparts have already recognized
Both sides are wasting important scientific energy because they are
either unaware of the other’s literature or too-discipline centered
Several researchers have recognized the importance of violence as
a public health problem, and public health officials are beginning to
come abroad
Sociologists and criminologists have recognized the importance of
public health approaches
This article is meant to encourage debate over the potential
benefits and drawbacks to the integration of criminology and public
health
The Burden of Violence
1996: World Health Assembly declared violence a public health
concern
o Interpersonal violence and war-related deaths constituted
nearly ¼ of injury related mortality worldwide
Interpersonal violence alone is the third leading cause of death in
the injury category
o Males suffer this fate at a disproportionately higher rate than
females
Excess mortality due to violence disproportionately influences a
population’s life expectancy
o Victims of violence tend to be younger than those dying of
internal causes
o It is often a leading cause of total years of potential life lost
Intentional violent injuries contribute substantially to overall
mortality worldwide
There is accumulating evidence that direct and indirect exposure to
violence in childhood is a risk factor for
o Delinquency
o Violence as an adult
o Mental other health problems
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Document Summary

Advances in violent crime analysis and law enforcement: the canadian. Serious criminals are aware of the failure between agencies to communicate with each other. Canada introduced the violent crime linkage analysis system (viclas) which helps to overcome language barriers. A term used to describe a computerized data base collection of information about solved/unsolved crimes. Investigators use this to find similarities to help solve cases. Fbi violent crime apprehension program (vicap) Mid 1980"s, canada introduced the major crime file (mcf), Mackay: from may 1991 1992 the violent crime analysis branch analysed existing automated case linkage systems. Chose what were considered to be the best features in each system to include in viclas: viclas collects sexual offences as well as homicides. Long form: predatory homicides and sexual offences: 39 pages, 263 questions, apparently random, motiveless, little is known. Short form: all other homicides: 8 pages, 83 questions. Short sexual assault form: sexual assaults where little is known.

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