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Final

SOC 2670(DE) - Final Exam Review .docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2760
Professor
Rob Shearer
Semester
Winter

Description
DefinitionsPeopleTheoriesFinalExamReviewReadings1DaviesCh4PatternsTrends1questionHomicidesnotmonolithic2004FBIreported16137individualsinUSmurderedofhomicidesin2004reflects24decreasefrom200316528murders200548increasesince2004USmurderratedecreasedfromrateof57homicidevictims100000in2003to55100000RateofHomicidedeterminedper100000peopleingivenpopcomparableacrosscitiesofdifferentsizesHomiciderateHP100000HofhomicidesinareaPpopofthatareaofhomicidesinUSdecreased653between19912004Homicidevictimizationratedecreased55between1991200424703recordedin1991recordhighforrecordedhomicideinUSVictimizationratepeakedin1981102100000Homicideinvolvingargumentsmostcommon439228homicidesoccurredalongwithanotherfelonysuchasrobberyburglaryDrugsinvolvedinapprox16ofhomicidesin2004withknowncircumstances559victimoffenderrelationshipsknowntopoliceAcquaintancesmostlikelyoffenderswith23killedbyacquaintances9killedbyintimatepartners8killedbyfamilymembersnotinclspouses3killedbysomeoneelsethevictimknewexneighborsemployeremployeeMurdermostlikelytooccurbetweenindividualwhohadsometypeofrelationshipofhomicidecasesinwhichthevictimoffenderrelationshipisunknownhasincreasedremarkablysince1960sUnknowncasesmorelikelytoinvolvewhitevictimsin1970sandAfricanAmericasin1990s1970slikelytoinvolveknifing1990sgunsprominentamongunknownoffendercasesSampleQuestionAccordingtoDaviesChapter4kniveswereusedin67of2003homicidesinvolvingweaponsaTruebFalseHomicidepredominantlymaleactivityvictims78UShomicideoffendersin2004weremaleWhensexofoffenderwasknown90ofhomicideoffendersweremaleMaleoffenderspredominateaskillersofbothMF89ofthosewhokillmalesand90ofthosewhokillfemalesaremenHomicideoffendingcommittedmostoftenbyrelativelyyoung2Peakage2004was20241729accountedformajority576ofhomicideoffendingFemalevictimoffenderstendtobeadultsbetween2054noagespikeforfemalesAmongknownoffendersvictimswhitesoutnumberAfricanAmericans2004486ofhomicideoffenderswhite475AfricanAmericanRateofhomicidevictimization6xhigherforAfricanAmericansascomparedtowhitesRatesofhomicideoffendingforAfricanAmericans7xhigherthanratesofoffendingin2004forwhitesWhiteoffenderstendtokillwhitevictimsAfricanAmericanoffenderstendtokillAfricanAmericanvictimsOfficialSHRdatarevealdeclinesinhomicidevictimizationratessince1976amongallracesNationalCentreforInjuryPreventionControlYearsofpotentiallifelostExIfmanmurderedat35andaveragelifeexpectancy7040potentialyearsoflifelost185ofallyearsoflifelostduetounintentionalinjuries5duetohomicideYearsofLifeLostbyGenderRace22yearslostWhiteF36WhiteM43BlackF42HispanicF108HispanicMTotalfigureforBlackM5xhigherthanwhiteM154GunspredominateasmurderweaponsinUSFirearmsusedasmurderweaponin60ofallhomicidesin2004HandgunsmostpopulargunchoiceforhomicideoffendersMosthomicideratesoccurredathighestrateinmostdenselypopulatedareasMSAshad888ofhomiciderate5910000010innonmetropolitanareas3610000044citiesoutsideofMSAs35100000MorecommoninSouthNorthwestleastpopulousregionofUSleastmurdersSouthmostpopulousmosthomicidesHomiciderateremainsconsistentlyhigherthanrateinmanyothercountriesUS556Canada177Norway095lowestSouthAfrica5586highest25offenders42hadhistoryofalcoholproblems40hadhistoryofdrugproblemsFewerthan1517committedbyindividualswithseverementalillness2DaviesCh6SocialandCulturalExplanationsforHomicide20questionsMenaremorelikelythanwomentobebothoffendersandvictimsofhomicide3USsouthernershavehigherratesofhomicidethannortheasternersAfricanAmericanandpooroverrepresentedasbothhomicideoffendersandvictimsCesareBeccariaFatherofclassicalperspectiveoncrimeArguedpeoplearerationalandhedonisticandpossessfreewillIndividualsmakedecisionsabouthowtheyactIndividualsweighcostsandbenefitsofpotentialactionsincludingcriminalactionsRationalChoiceTheoryAssumesthatpeoplearerationalandconsidertherisksinvolvedintheiractionsbeforeactingLawsmayhaveadeterrenteffectonhumanbehaviorPunishmentsawardsdontdoitPunishmentsawardsdoitSocialDisorganizationTheoryShawMcKaystudyingcrimeininnercityChicagoTransitionalZoneZonewithhigherdelinquencyandcrimeratesWorsthousingconditionsHighratesofpovertyFewerintactfamiliesLittlenosenseofcommunityDisorganizedUnclearnormsPolicemaylookforcrimemorefrequentlyininnercityurbanareasandtherateswillbehigherthereSDTcriticizedforfailingtoexplainthefactthatnoteveryonewholivesindisorganizedareascommitscrimeswhereassomewholiveinnondisorganizedareasdoRecenthomicidestudiesappeartosupporttobasicideasofSDTDifferentialAssociationTheoryEdwinSutherlandInfluencedbySDTSetsouttoexplainwhycrimewasmorecommoninpoorareasLearntocommitcrimeYouthlearningtocommithomicidesfromotheryouthSocialControlTheoriesExplainwhypeopleviolatenormsAssumepeoplewillcommitcrimesiflefttotheirowndevicesOurconnectiontoconventionalotherspreventsusfromcommittingcrimeExNotafraidoflosingjoborlosingourstandinginsocietymaymoreseriouslyconsiderstealingorkillingHomiciderateshigherinurbanareasbcpeopleinurbanareasbelievedtobelessconnectedtootherpeopleSocialBondTheoryThemoreweareconnectedtoconventionalothersinsocietythelesslikelywewillcommitdelinquentacts
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