SOC 2760 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hate Crime, Voluntary Manslaughter, Willie Bosket
SchoolUniversity of Guelph
Course CodeSOC 2760
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Homicide Midterm 2 notes
The Montreal Massacre; Links
-Marc Lepine aged 25 on Dec 6th 1989 roamed the 3 floors of Montreal’s Ecole Polytechnique
for 45mins shouting “I want women”. He separated the men and women and before opening fire
on the room full of engineer students he shouted “I hate feminists.” Before he killed the 14
women they plead saying they weren’t feminists just students.
Chapter 13; Murder as a hate crime
-Familiarity breeds hate but hate also breeds brutality.
-7th June 1998 James Byrd Jr a 49 African American was brutally murdered by a self-proclaimed
KKK member in Jasper Texas. Shawn Berry, James Kind and Lawrence Brewer, 3 white
supremists offered Bryd a ride home and subsequently beaten and dragged him behind the truck
until dead and dismembered.
-Hate crime-hatred, bias, prejudice based on the actual or perceived race, colour, religion,
national origin, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation of another individual. Not the act if hating
the person but that the crime is committed because of prejudice towards a group they represent.
-George Bush signed the Hate Crimes Statistics Act which was to collect data on crimes
motivated by race, religion, ethnicity, national origin and sexual orientation in 1992. 1994
disability was added by the FBI.
-In 2003 8715 hate crimes were reported. Over a third were African American because of race,
10% were Jews because of religion and many were homosexual men for sexual orientation.
-Hate crimes are most likely to occur in the home or a public place, personal weapons are most
often used. Many hate crimes are violent offences but most religion are vandalism or property
crimes. Religious/disability are 40+, race bias are under 18, sexual orientation bias are 18+.
-Approximately 1% of hate crimes are murders.
-Baumhmmer went on a killing rampage in 2000 and killed many nonwhites before caught and
sentenced to death.
-Hate crime legislation counts hate crimes and allows for additional punishments for the crime
because it affects the entire group not just the individual. However some argue against it that 1)
hate crimes aren’t more harmful, 2) difficult to prove hate as motive, 3) first step to punishing
-Wisconsin v. Mitchell. Black gang of 20yr olds beat a white person almost to death. Leader was
sentenced to 2yrs doubled. Appealed saying it was against his free speech and it was passed that
his sentence was increased as what he said helped prove his act was a hate crime.
-1955 Emmett Till whistled at a white women, later that day he was then beaten, shot and
disposed of. 2 people were charged but were acquitted in a bogus trial.
-2007 a 71yr old man charged with kidnap and murders of 2 black boys in 1964. He was arrested
at the time but no charges were placed on him.
-Hate crimes are still common today. Most targeted are black people, whites, Asian pacific,
multiracial groups and native/Alaskan natives.
-Hate crimes do not just happen to minorities.
-Nativists are those who victimize immigrants or a specific ethnic group.
-If a person is not charges/convicted in criminal court you can take them to civil court for hate
crimes as a violation of your civil rights.
-Religious bias hate crimes are aimed at different faiths but mostly Jewish and now Muslims.
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-Not every state agrees with adding sexual orientation to the legislation but many have. Sexual
orientation is believed to be the 3rd most common hate crimes but could be higher. Sexual
orientation hate crimes are more likely violent and often overkill.
-Mary Warren coined the term “gendercide” which is the deliberate extermination of persons of a
particular sex (or gender).
-States don’t include gender in legislation; believe violence against women (assume
gender=women) is different to hate crimes on minority groups. 1)crimes against women are often
by people they know 2)violence against women is commonplace, hate crimes are rare 3)already
laws in place to protect women 4) motivation is often not hate but power, control or fantasy.
-Disability hate crimes are seemingly rare but may just be that they are underreported
-Less than 5% of offenders were part of a hate crime organization. They attacked for the fun of
it, to get them off their turf or to show the world their biased ideology.
Chapter 9; Children who Kill
-16yr old Jess Weise killed his grandfather, gf, a guard, 5 students, a teacher and then himself.
-In 1980’s there was an increase in killings by 14-17yr olds which decreased in 1990’s and is
unfortunately now on the rise again.
-Parricide is the killing of parents
-Youth, juvenile and children refers to under 18. Teen, teenager or adolescent refers to those
under 18 but at least 13. Preteens and preadolescents is those under 13.
-Lizzie Borden nursery rhyme says she killed both her parents with 40 whacks axe each. In fact
in 1892 Lizzie who was 33 killed her stepmother and dad with total of 29 hits. She was acquitted.
-U.S. common law deems those younger than 7 incapable of mens rea.
-Carl Newton Mahan 6 killed his 8yr friend with a shotgun after telling him he would shoot him.
He was charged by the jury and convicted of 15yrs in juvie. Caused uproar and he was left in
custody of his parents.
-10% of those arrested for murder and non-negligent manslaughter 2002-2004 were under 18.
-In Michigan 11yr old was charged with first degree murder because the law states anyone under
17 who commits a serious offence can be tried as an adult but because his mental age was called
into question he was not convicted.
-Males juvenile offenders significantly outnumber females ones (93%). Shown that as age
increases the number of victims increases too. Number of female offenders has remained stable.
-Black youths are more likely to kill than any other race and are more likely to use firearms.
Youths usually kill within their own race.
-Child killers are more likely in USA than other westernized countries and the more densely
populated the city the more likely there are offenders.
-Japanese school girl killer was 11 and killed a friend by slitting her throat with a box cutter in an
empty classroom because the victim posted messages about the offenders weight on the internet
-Child killers are most likely to kill acquaintances. Boys are more likely to kill strangers whereas
girls are more likely to kill family members or their own infants.
-Eric and Lyle Mendez killed their parents after supposed years of abuse (17, 21). In 1996 they
were convicted on 2 counts of 1st degree murder and sentenced to life in prison.
-Patricide is killing your dad, matricide is killing your mum. Most are adult children but a small
portion are under 18.
-Heide said 3 types of children kill parents 1) severely abused 2) mentally ill 3) dangerously
antisocial children. Most children have troubled family histories.
Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.
-Adolescent parricides are often 16-18yrs, white, upper middle class or middle class boys who
often kill their father. Tend to kill in a very violent attack often after years of abuse.
-Klein 1995 compared gang and non-gang homicides in LA. Gang homicides are more likely to
occur on the streets, involve guns, cars, males and for the offender to be younger.
-Goldstein predicted connections between violence and drugs. 1) effects of drugs contribute to
behaviour, 2)commit crime to buy drugs, 3) violence is used for territory.
-Male juvenile killers ¾ time used guns, girls only 41%. Boys used knives 14%, girls 32%. 27%
girls use other methods such as strangulation or beating but boys used other methods 14% time.
-As the age of offender increases they are more likely to have a co-offender.
-6yr old boy killed 6yr old Kayla with a gun he found in his home, a crack house. He was found
criminally irresponsible for the death but the owner of the gun was charged with manslaughter.
-Motives; bullied, abusive environment, aggressive/violent personality, mental disorders, gang
-Heide says it is important to distinguish between preadolescent and adolescent killers as
preadolescent are often impulsive kills and do not understand the permanence of the action.
Adolescence is often gang affiliated.
-Newman proposes sociological reasons such as family problems, peer relation etc. 5 specific
causes; 1) shooters self-perception of marginalization, 2) killers experiencing psychological
problems that make marginalization worse, 3) cultural script says gain power/respect from
killing, 4) miss warning signs in childhood, 5) easy availability/access to guns in U.S.
-Willie Bosket laws (aka The Juvenile Offenders Act 1978) allows kids as young as 13 to be
tried as adults. Named after boy who killed someone he was having a fight with as well as 2
bystanders just because he wondered what it would feel like to kill someone.
-Judge decides if a child is tried in adult court but must meet the following criteria 1) crime must
be serious 2) particular minimum age is met 3) must have previous record of offending.
-Questions of mental accountability for young offenders was questioned by a 7yr old boy in
Florida beating his 7month old baby sister to death.
Chapter 10;Child Murder and Infanticide
-Approx 2000 children are killed per yr in the U.S.
-17th and 18th C fathers could decide whether their children lived or died. Infanticide was so
common Thomas Coram established a foundling home for infants/children cast away and
abandoned by parents. Infants have also been killed as population control, religious reasons, out
of wedlock babies and babies with birth defects.
-Approx 10-20% of all murders are of children.
-Neonaticide-Killing of a newborn baby within 24hrs of life. Often by young, single women who
conceal their pregnancy, give birth alone and kill their babies in a nonviolent way (exposure or
suffocation). There is a law in Michigan that newborns can be turned over to any emergency
services without penalty, prevents neonaticide.
-Infanticide-Killing of an infant usually less than 1yr old. On the first day of life children are 10
times more likely to be killed than any other time. In UK and Australia infanticide is only of the
mother killing her child within 12 months. Child is most likely to be killed by mother un 1st week
of life then by males in their lives.
-Prolicide-Killing of ones offspring; includes infanticide and fetus in utero killings.
-Fillicide-killing of ones offspring (including stepchildren and adult children)
-Approx 60% of all child murder are by parents
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