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SOC 2760

The Murder Book Chapter 4: Patterns and Trends Homicide Trends - The decrease in homicide numbers and rate is a trend that began in 1991 when it reached at 9.8 per 100,000 o This decrease is unprecedented in the last 50 years o The number of homicides in the US has dropped by 65.3%, whereas the homicide in 55% during the same period o The victimization rate peaked in 1981 at 10.2 - The 15 leading cause of death for 2003 - Before when the victim knows the offender the relationship is most likely that of a family member, now it is more likely a spouse or causal acquaintance - both victims and offenders are predominately male - peak age for offending is 20-24, ages 17-19 accounted for 57% of offenders with less than 5% older than 50+ and younger than 17 - though the number of white victims and offenders are higher, the rates for African Americans is far greater due to the fact that they are highly over represented in crime statistics - one out of 18 men, one in 89 women, one in 11 African-Americans (9.2 percent), one in 27 Latinos (3.7 percent), and one in 45 Caucasians (2.2 percent) Chapter 6 Differential Association Theory - Developed by Ed Sutherlands theory argued that crime is something we learn to do, that there are laws that should be follow and those that can be ignored o Good at explaining certain types of homicide but not all Social Control Theories - Assumes that people will commit crimes if left to their own devices o People with little social connection have nothing to lose or deter them from committing crimes, there is little regard for concequences - Hirichis social bond theory agrees, the more connected we are the less we are willing to go against the norm o We are bound to the bonds of Attachment, Involvement, Commitment and Belief General Theory of Crime - Gottfredson and Hirschi prosed the idead that it is a combination of low self-control and opportunity that lead to criminal behaviour o Poor or absent parenting often leading to a lack of temper control coupled with potential for gain through criminal means Neutrilization Theory - Sykes and Matza (1957) that criminals were not inherently bad but drifted towards bad behaviour and is capable of rationalizing their actions o Denial of Responsibility Its not my fault o Denial of Injury No harm done o Denial of a Victim they deserved it o Condemnation of the Condemners they do it too or worse o Appeal to higher loyalties I have to do it for the people I care about Righteous Slaughter - In which the victim is doing something the killer cannot ignore and they must act against the offense Lifestyle And Routine Activities Theory - The routine behaviour of individuals may increase or decrease their risk of murder o Three elements are required for a crime; a motivated offender, the availability of a suitable target and the absence of effective guardians Social Stratification In poor areas the task of day to day live can be stressful, this combination of circumstances may lead to violence Chapter 7 - Adler and Polk (2001) suggest that homicide is often the result of a character contest, an attempt to prove through force that one is a man - This also explains increased aggression in females as the womans movement encouraged more masculine behaviours o Simon proprosed that it was not because they were becoming more like men but because the feminist movement provided more opportunity both professionally and personally Corporate crime Women who kill other woman over a male in their lives Confrontational homicide that is bred from the need to reassert oneself as an attractive sexual object after being offended Chapter 9 Notes: Kids who Kill History - US common law does not consider children younger than 7 capable of intending to commit criminal acts o Because of those in this age group who have killed the question is posed whether or not they can understand the gravity of the act they commit o Cases against the young are supposed to be heard by a single judge and not a jury Data - Although the number of children who kill is alarming, they make up a relatively small percentage of those who kill - As age increases, the number of arrest for homicide also increases Trends - To discuss increase/decrease you have to separate age groups to establish trends o Those younger than 14 have rates closest to zero, reaching 0.1 in 2002 o Children 14-17 account for the majority of child homicide at a rate o
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