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Homicide Study Notes.docx

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SOC 2760

Homicide Study Notes: The Ultimate Package Week 9 Davies Chapter 8 Juristat: Canadian Centre of Justice Statistics Pottie Bunge National trends in intimate partner homicides, 1974-2000 - Since 1974 nearly 2600 spousal homicides have been recorded in Canada - Spousal homicide has been on the decline since 1974 declined 42% - Younger separated couples are more likely to be at risk of homicide than older separated couples - Rates highest in Manitoba for women and Saskatchewan for men, lowest in Newfoundland and Labrador for women and PEI for men - Firearms were the most common weapon - Homicides citing domestic violence in the past rose from 53% to 67% - More than half of the spousal homicides between 1991 and 2000 involved someone with a prior criminal conviction - Between 1974 and 2000 more than of male and 3% of female perpetrators committed suicide - Increase in number of spousal violent cases brought to polices attention from 29% to 37% - 3 important social changes that offer an explanation for the decline in spousal homicide rates: 1)changing nature of intimate relationships 2) increasing gender equality and 3)availability of resources to fight violence and help victims - Addressing 2 identified gaps: 1)documentation of trends in spousal homicides also subgroups and 2) identification of factors that can be associated with the decline - Spousal homicides decreased, since 1974, from 18% to 13% - The homicide rate decreased by 62% and men by more than half - Between 1990 and 2000, homicide rates were highest among separated and common law women - Rates declined for separated women biggest decline for common law relationships - For men, spousal homicide rates highest for common law - Researchers in the US found that there was a decrease in lethal violence for married couples and an increase In violent crimes for unmarried couples. - Canadian data found that homicide rates have been declining in most intimate relationship types. - For young couples, women under the age of 25 have been murdered at a rate of 21.2 women per million compared to 6.6 for men - Decline for both men and women - 35 and older showed a steady decline in rates - Between 1991 and 2000, young separated women were killed at a rate of 113.4 per million compared to 9.5 per million for women over 55 - Young separated men rates were also high - Western provinces had the highest rates of provincial spousal homicide - Homicide rates for women in the Northwest Territories was 7 times the national average - Male rates were 14 times higher - Firearms account for more than 1 in 3 victims of spousal homicide - Women 40% likely to be killed by firearm men 26% - Men 58% more likely to be killed by knife or sharp object women 23% - Knives were the most frequently used weapon among other intimate partners - Firearm use has been declining since 1974 - Between 1991 and 2000, 58% of spousal homicides had a history of domestic violence - Between 1991 and 2000, women were more likely than men to be murdered by a spouse with a prior conviction for a violent offence - 35% to 25% - Male victims were 8 times more likely to be the first to use force in incidents resulting in homicide - Most frequently cited motive was an argument (47%) followed by jealousy (21%) - Jealousy was often the motivating factor for women - Men are most likely to commit suicide after a homicide - Lower rates of marriage and delayed entry into marriage both result in an overall reduction in violence in relationships - Women are putting off having children a few years to pursue employment and economic independence - Innovations in policy, legislation and services for victims have made important contributions towards reducing spousal homicide general public is responding with greater negativity to such crimes than in the past - Between 1979 and 1992 over 200 womens shelters were opened - By 1999, 508 shelters were operating in Canada - Also been a rise in the number of women who use these shelters - Number of programs set up to help men has reached at least 204 - Since 1983 there have been mandatory/ pro charging and prosecution policies ensures all spousal violence is treated as a criminal offence - Specialized domestic violence courts look to speed up the cases for the safety of the victim - Domestic violence legislation intended to provide protection to victims of domestic violence - Declines have been noted in most subgroups, age groups, regions of the country, and other intimate relationships Exploring Racial Variations in the Spousal Sex Ratio of Killings Wendy Regoeczi -this article examines differences in the social situation of intimate partners as an explanation of racial differences in the female to male ratio of spousal homicides in Canada. -when women kill a family member is most likely to be the victim -Wilson and Daly define the sex ratio of killing (SROK) as the number of women who kill their husbands per 100 men who kill their wives. -Canada has a sex ratio of killing of 31 wives kill their husbands for every 100 husbands who kill their wives. -the female/male ratio for spousal homicides also vary by race. In the US, African Americans have the highest SROK. In Canada, the SROK is the lowest for black people but highest for native Canadians. -this suggest that spousal killings may be less a matter of race and more a matter of conditions that African Americans and Native Canadians share. The Nature of the Relationship Registered Marriage versus Cohabitation - the risk of homicide by females is higher among cohabiting couples than registered marriages - studies show higher rates of violence among cohabiting couples than married or dating partners Co residency versus Separation - the risk of being killed by a husband is higher for women separated from as opposed to residing with their spouses - there is a higher risk of homicide linked to estrangement Age Disparity - Wilson and Daly found that couples who were less than 10 years apart in age had a high SROK. - The SROK varies in age- women who are 10 years older than husbands has a lower SROK but women who are 10 years younger are at a higher risk of being killed The Nature of Homicide Homicide Motive - male sexual jealousy and proprietariness are proposed to be the motivating factors for a substantial number of wife killings.
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