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SOC 3710
Ajay Sharma

Chapter 1 Rise and Fall of DelinquencyThe Public Issue Discourse how things are talked about and understood both orally and in written form including formal talk such as theory professional talk such as reports books and media and conversationsMedia and Politics of Youth Crime Politics of youth crime the ways in which youth crime is understood and talked about both formally and informally and the actions laws and policies that derive from this discourse Adult crimes far surpass youth crimes both in quantity and severity Youth justice under the YOA was a slap on the wrist Revised the YOA 3 times before proposing to replace it Juvenile Justice system a system of laws policies and practices designed under the guiding philosophy that children and youth because of their age and maturity should not be subject to criminal law in the same manner as adults2 Opposing sides of Youth Crime Perspective 1 Economic Social and Political realities on young peopleo Related to the difficulties that youth encounter in an increasingly complex societyo Current economic social and political realities are a source of tremendous hardship for some young people and their familieso Young people are forced to leave home as a matter of survivalo Problems experienced by young people rather than youth crime Perspective 2 Viewing youth as an enemyoThis law and order group viewed children and youth accused of crimes as an enemy from whom adults needed protectiono Proponents of this view saw youth as out of control andfavored a law and order approach to youth crimeo Youth were a problem becauseLack respect for anyone or anythingLack sense of responsibility for criminal behaviourBeen increasingly involved in criminal behaviour YOA was a problem becauseo Youth could not be identifiedo Youth were not punishedo Youth had more rights than victimso Youth had too much protectionGood Old Daysyoung people have always been responsible for a considerably smaller amount of criminal activity than adults and most of their offenses have involved petty property crimeth Penitentiary 19 C term for prisoners based on a philosophy of penitence and punishment to atone for wrongs Primary Data Research information gathered directly from the original source Secondary Data Research information or data that was originally collected for another purposeththLawless and Disobedient Youth 17 and 18 C Concerns were expressed about youth as a problem in north American colonies as early as the thlate 17 C Carrigano Examined the historical records of crime and punishment from the earliest European records and reported that the majority of documented cases were of a petty natureo They involved vandalism petty theft brawling swearing etco Young people were involved in serious crimes and murders but their ages were often not recordedo Throughout recorded history children in European society have hada different legal status than adultso They had no rights and they were at the mercy of their parents and the stateo Infanticide child labourand child slavery were commontho Children having their own rights did not gain popularity until the 19 CColonial Public Issues the issue for colonial administrators in the territories of Canada was the freedom and independence that young people had relative to their counterparts in the Old world parents were dependent on their childrens labour for economic success considerable independence from their parents parental authority was significantly undermined by this arrangement and this lack of authority was evidentin young peoples behaviourCauses and Solutions Control and Punishment historical documents of the colonial period 2 factors emerge as perceived causes of youth crimeo Parentso The fur trade The fur trade promised freedom adventure and a lucrative career Merchants and military officers also saw business opportunities for their sons in the fur trade and apprenticed them to experienced voyageurs According to Carrigano The fur trade was rife and fraud immorality theft assault and murdero Teenagers probably contributed to their fair share of lawlessnessth 18 Co discipline measures were proposed for youth crimeo fines and punishments for parents and offendersthA Question of Immorality 19 C Poororphaned children from Britain came to Canada as indentured servants Their lifeshitCauses and Solutions An era of Social Reform Rothmantho Later half the 19 Co Focuses on the individual a widespread belief in the goodness of humanitarian sentiment and above all a belief in the state and professionals to reform individualso Rehabilitative philosophy A belief that the right treatment can change a persons attitudes values and or behavioro No sense to return evil with evil by imprisoning and punishing criminal offenderso Return evil with good by trying to rehabilitate individuals who had committed crimeo Applied most readily to children and young people One of the recommendations from the Brown Commission report was a separate justice system to be created for juveniles Juvenile Delinquents Act made juvenile delinquents a legal statuso Juvenile delinquent a concept popularized in the Victorian era referring to children and youth who were considered problematic for a variety of reasonso Lengthy sentences in reformatories were necessary to rehabilitate young people While others were opposed to institutionalizing young people whether in youth or adult prisonthReformatories a 19 C term for juvenile prisons that were based on a belief in the ability of prisons to reform or change an individualNeglected and Delinquent Children Concern to reformers were neglected dependant and delinquent children Applied to children between the ages of 7 and 14 who broke any municipal provincial or federal law Dependents were children who were considered to be without families either because they were deemed illegitimate or because they had been abandoned by orphanageso 714 who knew right from wrong could be tried as an adultthThe Era of the Juvenile Delinquent The 20 Century Continued increases in populations and a rapid growth of cities that was accompanied by a variety of social issues including increases in youth crime There were more opportunities for criminal activities for different types of crimeth Dramatic increases n 20 CMyths and Facts about youth crime In Canada the sheer volume of official crime has increased but the overall pattern of youth crime has noto Official Crime offender and offence are data based on information collected for administrative purposes by justice agencies such as the police courts and correctional institutions Young males have always been responsible for the largest share of criminal activity engaged in by young peopleIs youth crime more serious now A more sociological and critical reading and interpretation of youth crime statistics would point to a number of factors that could account for increases that have little or nothing to do with changes in actual delinquent or criminal behavior among youth We should expect increases in criminal activity over time for at least 2 reasonso The Canadian population increasedo A new organization was created specifically to work with children who were involved in criminal and delinquent activity We cannot assume that youth behaviour is worse now that in past decades Not always comparable from one period to another Comparing crime statistics from different periods and drawing anything other than tentative conculsions is exteremly difficult Comparing crime statistics from different periods and drawing anything other than tentative conclusions is extremely difficultA sociological perspective on youth crime the sociologist tries to put the individual into a larger context to understand behaviour the individuals history family school or neighbourhood become important but that then leads to questions about the family school and neighbourhood that also need to be understood in contextthe history of the family and the structure of government and how that regulates family or the culture economy polity and philosophy of Canadian or Western society and the impact of all of these factors on family structuredynamicsYouth crime as a public Issue Smandych
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