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Midterm

SOC 3740 midterm review.docx

22 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 3740
Professor
C Yule

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Description
Purpose of punishment - Retribution and utilitarian transformation The sociology of punishment - Explores the relations between punishment and society along with its purpose as a social phenomenon and its role in social life - Understands penal insitutions and their practices within a wider social network - Punishment is historically, culturally and situationally specific - Various sociological/criminological accounts of punishment Corrections is the variety of policies, programs, services, facilities and organizations responsible for the management of individuals who have been accused or convicted of criminal offenses Key elements to punishment - Pain or consequence o Unpleaseant or creates suffering - Direct result of an offence against legal rules - Intentionally administered upon criminal by other individuals - Imposed and administered by an authority constituted by an legal system against which the offense is committed - PUNISHMENT IS NOT INDIVIDUAL ACTS OF VENGEANCE Moral bases - Punishment is justified because it is deserved - Respect for free will Denunciation means the warning of punishment. So acts such as public hangings or acts which will scare off people from committing the act. Humiliation, public explotation Incapacitation and selective incapacitation - Physically prevents someone from committing further crimes for a period of time Deterrence: http://voices.yahoo.com/general-deterrence-vs-specific-deterrence-4097797.html - The threat of punishment will prevent the commission of crime o General and specific General Delinquent acts can be controlled by the threat of punishment Specific Severe punishment will convince them not to repair their illegal acts Rehabilitation - Punishment itself changes the nature - Punishment allows a person to be held so the subject can be exposed to certain programs - Identification of defects and application of corresponding treatments - Time frame o Pre 1900 was all about discipline o 1950-1960 was the golden era of rehab o 1970 nothing worked era o 1990 had much evidence based theories what works o 2000 + what can we do to help the Utilitarian rationales raise a moral problem of using individuals as a means to achieve a collective end Sentencing - Denounces - Deters - Seperates - Rehabilitates - Reparates - Promotes responsibility History of punishment - In the west o Stateless societies Punishment helped keep society functioning and was largely based on personal retaliation and retribution o Consolidation and formalization of the state Increasing use of imprisonment as punishment System of punishment and enlightenment Rational system of punishment Enlightenment group brought a rational system with a goal to reduce crime Canada, france, and England were a like with crime - Public humiliation - Banishment o Became impractical - Capital punishment Jails starts in 1800 - Were not essential - Housing was not the punishment, just holding cells - Accused were held on trial - Death, rape, and starvation in cells often occurred as all were housed together Penal reform - Changed view politically and economically - Crime and punishments changed as society no longer enjoyed hanging and lessons were not being learned - Lots of immigration and industrialization - Worry of morality decline - Public concern of jail conditions Principles of a penitentiary - Britian introduced a penitentiary act in 1979 - Had to be intimidating, harsh and deter - Would isolate indivudals from societies bad influences - Penance and silent contemplation - Productive labout - Reform - Return to society renwed from solitary confinement and isolation Penitentories have universal appeal - Legalists o Deters crime - Politicians o Makes public see positive change - Conservatives o People make money and produce jobs - Industrialists o Free way to train a work force - Philanthropists o People are looked after Benthams panopticon - All seeing prison - Round the clock surveillance - No prisoner could see the guards - Brings mental uncertainty - Had to assume they were always being watched Foucault - To enduce the inmate into a state of conscious and permanent visibility which assures power Liabilities and contract with panopticon - Inmates have labour contracts - Responsibility for power holders - Open to outside world Competing prison models - Pennsylvania model o Separate and silence o Solitary confinement o Eat, sleep, and work all in the cell o Religious instruction o Reflection upon crime o Reform through salvation and religious enlightenment o Drawbacks Isolation brought on mental illness - Auburn model o Congregate and silence o Hard labour in shops during the day o Solitary confinement during the night o Strict discipline o Rule of silence o Reform through Discipline Good work habits o Drawbacks Brutal beatings Neither system curved or reformed crime Kingsten penitentiary - Canadas first pen. - Moral re-education - Individual separation of offenders - Silence and discipline - Poor conditions for inmates and guards - Tried to purify ppl - Men were beaten for punishment and women were put in solitary confinement Penal evolution - Keys o Increasing centralization of responses to crime and development of beaurocratic institutions to carry out related tasks o Rise of experts scienfitic knowledge o Contruciton of prisons and asylums to reform criminals and deviants o Move away from physical punishment to now punishing the mental aspect. Transition from body to mind The key to penitentiarys is solitary confinement Correctional officers - Federal penitentiaries see inmates and cos developing friendships - Behaviour and code o Always assist fellow COs o Dont become overly friendly o Do not abuse authority o Always support other COs decisions o Do your job o Defer to veteran officers Typology of guards - Enforcer o Inflexible o Discipline, custody and control o No negotioation o Tightly knit with other COs o No rehabilitation - Hard Liner o Power hungry
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