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Week 7.docx

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SOC 3750
Michelle Dumas

Week 7 - Protests and Crowds Models of Protest Policing  Fillieule 1997 o Antagonistic:  when police on orders of political authorities have distinctly repressive or antagonistic attitudes towards demonstrators, usually happens when protest has been banned or not seen as legitimate o Opportunistic:  when authorities handle protest in a soft manner, even illegal protests, wait-and- see stance, let’s see what happens before we take action o Open Conflict:  protestors and police are both aware that they mean business, more radical groups that come in and make police aware it is open conflict o Cooperative:  refers to demonstrations based on mutual trust and respect and cooperation between police and protestors, they go to police with information to work it out prior  Della Porta 1998 o Cooperation:  refers to demonstrations based on mutual trust and respect and cooperation between police and protestors, they go to police with information to work it out prior - not in riot gear o Negotiation:  based on more active presence by police with the objective of mediating between demonstrators and non-demonstrators o Ritualistic Stand Off:  based on aggressive police presence but at a distance, waiting to take action if necessary, symbolically looks aggressive o Total Control:  based on massive police presence, aggressive, not at a distance, in the action of the people, typically happens at football matches in Europe Flash Point Model  Flashpoint to riot: looking at riots focus on precipitating instances, whatever creates the riot  Hard to empirically test this, must be there to witness every interaction  Model doesn’t state which one pushes people over the edge  Structural: o material inequalities in society (macro) inferior like chances, or grievance based in material inequality – areas of rich and poor – could be compounded by repression of legislation – makes people more angry when you bring further legislation that sets them up to fail – objection to social issue based on inequality – leaves protesters feeling they have no stake in social order and that only option is to protest  Political/ideological: o concerned with way that political/ ideological institutions react to the grievances to the protesters – police, political legislators, its their response to the people who feel they are being mistreated – if political/police classify them as problematic or criminal, then of course it will push people into direction of protesting – if they are labeled as troublemakers they are more likely going to be treated harsher by police when they protests 3. Cultural: o contrasting ways in which groups develop – shared experiences, social structure – could reach out to sub culture- that these groups lead members to define themselves in a particular ways in opposition to powers that be – shape their attitudes to political leaders – shape their attitude to use of violence – ex. Black block, influence each other and support each other in use of violence – argument is that if you have these subcultures that are at the protests and police are unaware of the presence of these cultures, it could be a recipe for disaster 4. Contextual: o dynamic processes that lead up to the event of disorder – dependent on communication between protesters and powers that be can influence build up of events- they have scores to settle, protesters couldn’t protest well last time, - lead to rumors or media sensationalism that fuel both sides – context of people between people and police, if they have a history or on going feuds than it could lead to more trouble 5. Situational: o spatial and social interaction – situation of the actual event when people protest, - people choose place specifically – certain physical properties of location can help facilitate police surveillance or prevent protesters to move from the area or leave because police have backed them up – management of space can either lead to order or disorder – protesters feel like they are being pushed into corner by police – order may be kept if soft hat policing or peaceful policing is kept – riot may be triggered if someone throws brick  Soft hat method – analogy of police not having any riot geared, symbolized that’s police don’t wear riot gear and show they don’t want trouble  Flashpoint is interpreted symbolically by those who are there, by protesters or police, they believe they have certain rights, if they feel like rights are taken way it can 6. Interactional: o concerned with quality of social interaction between police and protesters- degree of respect between both parties, cooperation and probication – police feel they are not being respected they will begin arrest, then protesters will get angry and lead to riots – control tactics that are violations of citizens rights **10 Ironic Outcomes of Policing Protest (Gillham)  Ironic outcomes are an especially interesting consequence in which a result contradicts the intent  The Spill Over or Fly Paper Effect: o Affects the target groups as well as others ex: gassing protesters on Capitol Hill also gassed bystanders and residences as well, protester blockades inhibited their own medies and other medical personnel from reaching the injured  Reciprocal and Neutralizing Effect: o The moves of one side lead to similar moves by an opponent ex: anticipation of tear gas leads to the bring of gas masks 3. Escalation Effect: o Through a rough moving equilibrium, escalation extends the level of confrontation rather than leading to the desired goal ex: even with out aggression mere police presence may unintentionally heighten a sense of resistance in some demonstrators and by standers 4. Non-Enforcement Effect : o A related form involves escalation as a result of under enforcement - police may have allowed some laws to be broken by the more moderate demonstrators hoping they would exercise control over more serious violations - the line is difficult to determine in advance 5. Excitement Effect: o Dramatic action by one or both sides may attract opponents, allies, and bystanders to identify what is going on ex: attempts to clear capitol hill brought residence into the streets 6. Role Reversal Effect: o Demonstrators may police themselves while police do nothing or are themselves disorderly ex protesters preventing others from vandalizing and looting 7. Strange Bedfellows Effect: o The complexity of issues being struggled over may lead to unexpected alliances. Groups whose interests are typically incompatible may find common ground or at least set aside differences long enough to oppose a common opponent 8. Secrecy Effect: o Because the need to prevent infiltration or revelation of sensitive information protesters and police work to hide certain information from each other. Yet secrecy can prevent the flow of information from and to members and allies, just as easily as it inhibits information flow to opponents ex jargon and spokes 9. Prior Reform Effect: o In response to infiltration of protest groups in the 1960s Seattle adopted one the nations most stringent restrictions concerning police gathering of intelligence information about protest groups - civilian audit 10. Value Conflict Effect: o The structure of a democratic society legitimates conflicting values through law. The conflicting of values infuses many of the above ironies and calls attention to the question " ironic from whose point of view?" **Seattle Conditions Complexity & Irony in Policing and Protesting: The World Trade Organization in Seattle Introduction  During a large demonstration against the World Trade Organization in Seattle, tear gas fired by police effected many WTO delegates, shoppers and city officials but w
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