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SOC 3750
Michelle Dumas

EXAM NOTES WEEK 6: Media Police Effectiveness & Media - Mutually beneficial relship, rely on if don't have experience w cops, can show negative or positive - Low effectiveness rating – fear of crime, age (younger), bad neighbourhood, education, income over 60,000$, black, unsatisfactory interaction w police, ppl w high TV watching AND police contact Themes in quotes about crime - Media heavy reliance on law enforcement officials in formulating primary defns of crime - Primary definers – law enforcement officials VS secondary definers – professors & non-academic researchers - Consequence of primary defns of crim in news: rarely firsthand account of crime, shaped by dominant ideology - Illuminates how media image of crime is shaped and from whose perspective - Trends in quotes about crime: (state managers VS intellectuals) o State managers more ideological (in cause & what do about crime) distort connection b/w social conditions & crime-- heavy media reliance on primary definers (63% in study) o Most common topic crime rates/trends, NYC crime drop, youth crime, politicians discussing crime o Shows street crime most dangerous/costly – white collar crime is – most on street crime, 1 white collar - Themes in statements 1. confirming crime (and fear) is a problem  (approx ½ of all primary statements, ¼ for secondary) 2. serving as technical remarks  ¼ of all primary statements, 1/3 secondary 3. criticizing popular perceptions of crime  almost even number, quotes rarely critical 4. criticizing official statistics and trends  mainly secondary 5. conveying alarmist reactions to crime  emotionally driven, generate feat of crime, - Dominant ideology o Media capitalist owned journalists use dominant ideology of elite& protect their way of life- scholars disagree Newsworthiness - Simplification  simplify so don't lose audience - Risk  more risk more coverage, focus b/w strangers, risk of being victim, dangerous locations - Sex  sells crime stories, over emphasize crimes of sexual nature - Celebrity/high status - Proximity - Violence  most newsworthy, “if it bleeds it leads” - Children  if offenders, murder/sexually assaulted Police affecting representation of crime news Chermack - Police org & news  frame stories for public, don't talk to media - Asymmetrical relationship  reporter always in inferior position - Police (as sources)  Ppl believe them, credible source - Newspaper beats have journalists at the dept - Beat reporters - Sources 1) Documents o Police 2) Telephone  Hierarchy (chiefs, captain, 3) Scanner lieutenant) 4) Spokesperson  Generic attribution Week 7: Protests & Crowds Models of Protest Policing - Tendencies  under-enforcement, search for bargaining, large scale info collection Fillieule - Antagonistic  orders from political authorities, view protestors negatively, see as not peaceful - Opportunistic  take wait & see stance to see what actions to take, negotiations prior?? - Open conflict  usually w radical groups - Cooperative  mutual trust/understanding, work w police in process Della Porta - Cooperation - Negotiation - Ritualistic stand off - Total control Flashpoint Model - Some incidents don't ignite but some explode, explain what causes crowd behaviour to explode++ 1. Structural: feel powerless & not a part of society 2. Political/Ideological: how institutions react to demands of powerless, influenced by ppl w political power 3. Cultural: contrasting ways of life, develop on shared conditions, how feel fit in society effects actions, order breaks if outsiders intervene 4. Contextual: communication can lead to 5. Situational: setting, physical properties 6. Interactional: micro level, quality of interaction w police, varies based on respect Ironic Outcomes of Policing Protest 1. The Spill-Over / Fly Paper Effect: action by police/demonstrators effects target group & non-participants Reciprocal and Neutralizing Effects: moves of one side lead to similar moves by opponent (ex. prepare ahead) 2. Escalation Effects: escalation extends level of confrontation instead of leading to desired goal (ex. prepared for gas so escalated to other weapons) 3. Non-Enforcement Effect: escalation result of underenforcement (ex. police allow some things -makeing ppl believe others allowed) 4. Excitement Effect: dramatic action attracts outsiders to join or watch 5. Role Reversal Effect: police themselves while police do nothing/are disorderly 6. Strange Bedfellows Effect: complexity of issues lead to unexpected alliances (put aside diffs for common goal) 7. Secrecy Effect: prevent revelation of sensitive info – police/protestors hide info from e/o 8. Prior Reform Effect: restrictions on police gathering intelligence info about protest groups 9. Value Conflict Effect: structure of democratic society legitimates conflicting values through law Seattle Conditions - Police actions tilt to ppl in power who already have disproportionate role to start w - Failure of implementation – lost control, lacked professionalization, inadequate budget, incompetent - Demonstrators more prepared – shut down part of city, stopped some WTO meetings, wide attention for cause, portray themselves as police victims, exploit their adv & contradictions in system - Small groups divided into diff areas – outside Sheraton police tried to rid by spraying w pepper gas (prepared w masks etc), used gas & rubber bullets, word spread to other locations – enraged b/c told would be arrested BEFORE weapons used so began graffiti (both sides thought other went back on promise), both sides increased intensity, told couldn’t arrest b/c understaffed, separate march scheduled & unsure if should move (didn’t), called state of emergency, pushed away from city centre, fired at again, pushed to Capitol Hill, police more aggressive, gas went into ppls homes etc, looters, over 500 arrested - Blame on: insufficient preparation & resources, coordinate adversary, anti-investigation laws - Irony: gas affected outside ppl, police ac
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